Main Article Content
Wheat is the staple food for many countries, therefore, it needs more attention as compared to other cultivated crops. Stem rust is one of the major wheat diseases. Fungus spores fall on the plant surface and starts to grow inside the plant tissues. Two groups of resistant genes(R & Avr) have been identified conferring host-specific and non-host specific resistance respectively. Resistance is either achieved through thickening of the cell wall or through the programmed cell death (hypersensitivity) type of response. Every pathogen has specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs which are recognized by the receptor protein. i.e. pattern recognition receptors PRRs. Plants can activate separate defence pathways depending on the type of the pathogen encountered. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene-dependent responses seem to be initiated by necrotrophs, whereas salicylic acid (SA) dependent response activated by biotrophic pathogens.
Shamanin V, Shepelev S, Pozherukova V, Gultyaeva E, Kolomiets T, Pakholkova E, Morgounov A. primary hexaploid synthetics: Novel sources of wheat disease resis-tance. Crop Protection. 2019;121:7–10. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2019.03.003
Chen S. Trends and variability of rice, maize, and wheat yields in south asian countries: A challenge for trends and variability of rice, maize, and wheat yields in south asian countries: A challenge for food security. 2012;2(4):584–97.
Rahmatov M, Rouse M, Steffenson BJ, Wanyera R, Pretorius ZA, Houben A, Kumarose N, Bhavani S, Johnson E. Sources of stem rust resistance in wheat-alien introgression lines. Plant Dis. 2016; 100:1101-1101.
Tadesse K, Ayalew A, Badebo A. Effect of fungicide on the development of wheat stem rust and yield of wheat varieties in highlands of Ethiopia. African Crop Science Journal. 2011;18(1):23–33.
Olivera PD, Rouse MN, Jin Y. Identification of new sources of resistance to wheat stem rust in Aegilops Spp. in the tertiary genepool of wheat. 2018;1–7.
Gao L, Babiker EM, Nava IC, Nirmala J, Bedo Z, Lang L, Bariana H. Temperature-sensitive wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr15 Is effective against Puccinia graminis f. Sp. tritici race TTKSK. Plant Pathol. 2018;20:143–51.
Mamdouth AA, EI. Orabey WM, Mohamed N, Shahin AA. Effect of stem rust infection on grain yield and yield components of some wheat cultivars in Egypt. E Sci J. Plant Pathol. 2013;1:1-8.
Ayliffe M, Singh R, Lagudah E. Durable resistance to wheat stem rust resistance needed. Current opinion in plant biology. 2008;11:187-192.
Salcedo A, Rutter W, Wang S, Akhunova A, Bolus S, Chao S, Anderson N. Variation in the AvrSr35 gene determines sr35 resistance against wheat stem rust race Ug99 6169 (Dc). Plant Sci. 2017; 358(6370):1604-1606.
Soko T, Bender CM, Prins R, Pretorius ZA. Yield loss associated with different levels of stem rust resistance in bread wheat. Plant Disease. 2018;102(12):2531–2538.
Kosgey Z, Owuoche JO, Kiror MAO, Njau PN. Inheritance of stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers. F.Sp. Tritici ericks and E. Hen) resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines to TTKST races. IJAAR. 2015;7:1-13.
Nirmala J, Saini J, Newcomb M, Olivera P, Gale S, Klinddworth D, Rouse MN. Discovery of a novel stem rust resistance allele in durum wheat that exhibits differential reactions to UG99 isolates. G3: Genes Genomes Genetics. 2017;7(10):3481–3490.
Lemma A, Woldeab G, Semahegn Y. Advances in crop science and technology Virulence spectrum of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. Sp. Tritici in the eastern showa of Central Ethiopia; 2015.
Pujol V, Robeles P, Wang J, Taylor P, Tabe LZ, Lagudah E. Cellular and molecular characterization of a stem rust resistance locus on wheat chromosome 7AL.Pujol al. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9: 502.
Jin Y, Rouse M, Groth J. Population diversity of Puccinia graminis is sustained through sexual cycle on alternate hosts. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2014; 13(2):262–64.
Moldenhauer J, Moerschbacher BM, Van Der Westhuizen AJ. Histological investiga-tion of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici) development in resistant and susceptible wheat cultivars. Plant Pathol. 2006;55(4):469–474.
Esmail SM, Omara IR, Abdelaal KAA, Yaser MH. Histological and biochemical aspects of compatible and incompatible wheat- Puccinia striiformis interactions. Physiological and Molecular Plant Patho-logy. Elsevier Ltd. 2019;106:120–128.
Lorrain C, Goncalves dos Santos KC, Germain H, Hecker A, Duplessis S. Tansley review advances in understanding obligate biotrophy in rust fungi; 2018.
Tiburzy R, Reisener H. Resistance of wheat to Puccinia graminis f.sp.tritici: Association of physiological and molecular plant pathology. 1990;36:109-120.
Zhao Q, Dixon RA. Altering the cell wall and its impact on plant disease: From forage to bioenergy. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 2014;52(1):69–91.
Leonard KJ, Szabo LJ. Stem rust of small grains and grasses caused by Puccinia graminis. Molecular Plant Pathol. 2005;6: 99-111.
Singh VK, Upadhyay RS. The hyper-sensitive response: A case of cell death induction in plants. IJERT. 2013;2.
Thakur M, Sohal BS. Role of elicitors in inducing resistance in plants against pathogen infection: A review. ISRN Biochemistry; 2013.
Loon CV, Van Strien EA. The families of pathogenesis related proteins, their activities, and comparative analysis of PR-1 type proteins. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathol. 1999;55:85-97.
Marticke K, Reisener H, Fischer R, Hippe-sanwald S. In situ detection of a fungal glycoprotein-elicitor in stem rust-infected susceptible and resistant wheat using immunogold electron microscopy. European Journal of Cell Biology. Gustav Fischer Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1998; 76(4):265–273.
Ellis GJ, Lagudah ES, Spielmever W, Dodds PN. The past, present, and future of breeding rust-resistant wheat. Front Plant Sci. 2014;5:621.
Dodds PN, John PR. Plant immunity towards an integrated view of plant-pathogen interactions. Nature. 2010;11: 539-548.
Lodhi S, Bariana H, Randhawa M, Gul A, John P, Bansal U. Identification of recombinants carrying stripe rust resistance gene Yr57 and adult plant stem rust resistance gene Sr2 through marker ‐ assisted selection. 2018;148–53.
Bernardo AN, Robert LB, Matthew NR, Maria SN, David SM, Guihua B. Validation of molecular markers for new stem rust resistance genes in U.S. hard winter wheat. Crop Science. 2013;53:755-764.
Saccomanno A, Matny O, Marone D, Laido G, Petruzzino G, Mazzucotelli E, Desiderio F, Blanco A, Gadaleta A, Pecchioni N, De-Vita P, Steffeson B, Mastrangelo AM. Genetic mapping of loci for resistance to stem rust in a tetraploid wheat collection. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018;19(12):3907.
Ali Y, Khan MA, Atiq M, Hussain M. Review article novel gene pyramiding to combat rusts in global wheat varieties against prevalent virulence: A review; 2018.
Kokhmetova AM, Atishova MN. Identifi-cation of sources to wheat stem rust using molecular markers. Genetika. 2011;2:486-493.
Aoun M, Kolmer JA, Rouse MN, Chao S, Elias EM, Acevedo M. Inheritance and bulked segregant analysis of leaf rust and stem rust resistance in durum wheat genotypes. Phytopathol. 2017;107(12): 1496–1506.
Fonseca JP, Mysore KS. Plant science genes involved in nonhost disease resistance as a key to engineer durable resistance in crops. Plant Science. 2019; 108–16.
Rehman MU, Gale S, Brown-Guedira G, Jin Y, Marshall D, Whitcher LW, Williamson S, Rouse M, Bhavani S, Hussain M, Ahmad G, Hussain M, Sial MA, Mirza JI, Rauf Y, Rattu AR, Qamar M, Khanzada KA, Munir A, Ward R, Singh R, Braun H, Imtiaz M. Adult plant resistance to stem rust (Puccinia Graminis f . Sp . Tritici) in Pakistani advanced lines and wheat varieties and wheat varieties. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2018; 12(10):1633-1639.
Xiaofeng X, Yuan D, Li D, Gao Y, Wang Z, Liu Y, Wang S, Xuan Y, Zhao H, Li T, Wu Y. Identification of stem rust resistance genes in wheat cultivars in China using molecular markers; 2018.
Nzuve FM, Tusime G, Bahavani S, Naju P, Wanyera R. Studies of genetic inheritance of stem rust resistance in bread wheat. J.B. 2013;15:3153-3159.
Bansal U, Bariana H, Wong D, Randhawa M, Wicker T, Hayden M, Keller B. Molecular mapping of an adult plant stem rust resistance gene Sr56 in winter wheat cultivar Arina. Theor. Appl. Genet. 2014; 127:1441–1448.
Mago R, Bariana HS, Dundas IS, Spielmeyer W, Lawrence GJ, Pryor AJ, Ellis JG. Development of PCR markers for the selection of wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr24 and Sr26 in diverse wheat germplasm. Theor. Appl. Genet. 2005;111: 496–504.
Wang X, McCallum BD, Fetch T. Bakkeren G, Savile BJ. Sr36- and Sr5-Mediated resistance to Puccinia graminis f.sp.tritici is associated with callose deposition in wheat guard cells. Phyto. 2015;105:728-737.
Yin C, Ramachandran SR, Zhai Y, Bu C, Pappu HR, Hulbert SH. A novel fungal effector from Puccinia graminis suppressing RNA silencing and plant defense responses. 2019;1561– 72.
Nam TH, Leesun K, Ju-Jeon H, Kyeongnam K, Yong-sik O, Sung-Deuk C, Sung-Eun L. Biomarkers indicate mixture toxicities of fluorene and phenanthrene with endosulfan toward earthworm (Eisenia fetida). Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2017;39(2):307–317.
Raskin I. Salicylate, a new plant hormone. Plant Physiol. 1992;99:271-309.
Kumar D. Salicylic acid signaling in disease resistance. Plant Science. Elsevier Ireland Ltd. 2014;228:127–134.
Kunkel BN, Brooks DM. Cross talk between signaling pathways in pathogen defense. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2002;5(4):325–331.
Wildermuth MC, Dewdney J, Wu G. Supplementary information for "isochoris-mate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant defence”. 2005;414-562.
Moerschbacher BM, Noll U, Gorrlchon L, Reisener HJ. Specific inhibition of lignifica-tion breaks hypersensitive resistance of wheat to stem rust. Plant Physiol. 1990; 93:465-470.
Vanegas CDG, David FG, James AK. Genetics of stem rust resistance in the spring wheat cultivar Thatcher and the enhancement of stem rust resistance by Lr34. Euphytica. 2007;159:391-401.
Barros J, Serk H, Granlund I, Pesquet E. The cell biology of lignification in higher plants. Annals of Botany. 2015;115(7): 1053–1074.