Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science <span style="text-align: justify;">(ISSN: 2581-7167)</span></strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRCS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) on all aspects of Crops. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science 2581-7167 Improving Maize Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency Using Spectral Properties of Leaves for Need-based Nitrogen Management <p>There is a spiral increase in maize consumption in Ghana due to high population growth and changing consumer preferences. However, maize yield in the country is declining partly due to poor soil fertility and fertilizer management, resulting in low nitrogen use efficiency. A field experiment was therefore conducted at the Soil and Irrigation Research Centre, University of Ghana, Kpong during the 2016 cropping season to evaluate the effect of nitrogen management options on growth, yield and nitrogen use efficiency of maize. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replicates. Variety and nitrogen (N) management were the main and sub plot factors, respectively. The varieties were; 1. Aburohemaa (V1) 2. Abontem (V2) 3. Obaatanpa (V3). 4. Omankwa (V4), while the nitrogen management levels included; 1. no N application (control, N0), 2. Conventional practice, Conv (150 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) 3. Leaf Colour Chart, LCC (75 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) and 4. Soil Plant Analysis Development meter, SPAD (75 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>). The results revealed that LCC and SPAD meter in maize nitrogen-based management reduced nitrogen fertilizer input by 50% without significantly affecting the growth, grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of maize. Maize varieties significantly differed in terms of growth rate, yielding potential, N uptake and N use efficiency. The study recommended LCC to maize farmers since it is relatively cheap, easy to use and saved 50% N fertilizer input.</p> Priscilla Osei Owusu Joseph Ofori Christiana Amoatey Dominic Kwadwo Anning ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-04 2019-09-04 1 10 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v4i430077 Growth and Yield of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as Influenced by Different Levels of Kalli Organic Fertilizer on the Jos Plateau <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To determine the effect of Kalli organic fertilizer on the growth and yield of radish.</p> <p><strong>Study Design</strong><strong>:</strong> The experimental design used for this study was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) consisting of four (4) treatments (0, 400, 500 and 600 kgha<sup>-1</sup>) which were replicated four (4) times.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of the Study:</strong> The experiment was conducted at Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State located in the North Central part of Nigeria between September – October, 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Soil samples were collected and analysed. Agronomic practices such as land preparation, planting, fertilizer application, weeding and harvesting were also carried out. The data was collected on plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, number of roots, length of roots, diameter of roots, root weight and root yield. Data collected was analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Minitab 23 statistical package at 5% level of probability and where significance was determined Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to separate the means.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings from this research work revealed that there was no significant effect of Kalli organic fertilizer on the plant height, number of leaves. But the leaf area was found to be significant (p=0.05) at 8WAP with the application of 600 kgha<sup>-1</sup> recording the largest (143.30 cm<sup>2</sup>) leaf. The number of roots, length of roots, weight of root and total yield was found to be significant (<em>P</em>=0.05) on the application of different levels of Kalli organic fertilizer. The application of 600 kgha<sup>-1</sup> produced the highest number (35.50) of radish roots, length (24.83 cm) of radish roots, weight (7.20 kg) of radish and total yield (18000 kgha<sup>-1</sup>) of Radish.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on this research study it could be concluded that the application of Kalli (600 kgha<sup>-1</sup>) organic fertilizer significantly increased the yield of Radish. It is therefore recommended that organic fertilizer can be applied for optimum production of Radish.</p> U. M. Umar I. Ibrahim, Iro S. M. Obidola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-04 2019-09-04 1 8 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v4i430078 Comparison of Non-parametric Stability Statistics for Selecting Stable and Adapted Soybean Genotypes under Different Environments <p>The objectives of this study were to investigate the comparison among non-parametric stability statistics and to evaluate seed yield stability of the sixteen soybean genotypes across four locations during the 2016, 2017 and 2018 growing seasons in Egypt. All trials were laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The AMMI analysis showed ahighly significant effect of genotype (G), environment (E) and G x E interaction (GEI). The major contributions to treatment sum of squares were GEI, followed by G and E. The AMMI analysis also partitioned the total GEI component into eleven PCAs and Residual. The first eight PCAs were highly significant and accounted for about 99.56% of the total GEI. Based on the static and dynamic concepts, the results of spearman’s rank correlation and PCA showed that stability measures could be classified into three groups. The non-parametric stability statistics i.e., <em>YSi</em>, <em>KR</em>, <em>TOP</em>, <em>RSM</em> and <em>δgy</em> related to the dynamic concept and strongly correlated with mean seed soybean yield of stability. While, the other non-parametric stability statistics (S<sub>i</sub><sup>(1)</sup>&nbsp;<em>,</em>S<sub>i</sub><sup>(2)</sup> <em> ,</em>S<sub>i</sub><sup>(3)</sup> <em> &nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;S<sub>i</sub><sup>(6)</sup><em>,</em>NP<sub>i</sub><sup>(1)</sup>&nbsp;<em>,</em>NP<sub>i</sub><sup>(2)</sup><em>&nbsp;</em><em>,</em>NP<sub>i</sub><sup>(3)</sup><em>&nbsp;</em><em>and </em>NP<em><sub>i</sub><sup>(4)</sup>&nbsp;</em> <em>, δr, MID, LOW</em>) represented the concept of static stability, which were influenced simultaneously by both yield and stability. The non-parametric stability statistics in each the groups I, II, and III were positively and significantly correlated with each other, thus; any of these parameters could be considered as appropriate alternatives for each other. According to cluster analysis, soybean genotypes G6, G4, G8, G11, G9, G1, G7 and G2 were more stable varieties on the basis of mean seed yield and non-parametric stability statistics. In conclusion, both yield and stability should be considered simultaneously to exploit the useful effect of GEI and to make the selection of genotypes more precise and refined. Thus, the <em>YS<sub>i</sub></em>, <em>KR</em>, <em>TOP</em>, <em>RSM</em> and <em>δgy</em> were more useful statistics in soybean breeding programmes and could be useful alternatives to parametric stability statistics. According to most non-parametric stability statistics, the genotypes G6 and G11 were more stable coupled with high seed yield; therefore, these genotypes might be used for genetic improvement of soybean and they must be released in studied regions and other regions in Egypt.</p> E. F. El-Hashash S. M. Tarek A. A. Rehab M. A. Tharwat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 1 16 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v4i430080 Effect of Starter Solution and Age of Seedling on Growth and Yield of Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea Var. Italica) <p>A study was conducted at central farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural university, Dhaka during the period of October, 2017 to March, 2018 to investigate the influence of starter solution and age of seedling on the growth and yield of broccoli. The experiment consisted of two factors. Factor A: Four levels of starter solution as S<sub>0</sub>= 0% urea solution (control), S<sub>1</sub>= 1% urea solution, S<sub>2</sub>= 2% urea solution, S<sub>3</sub>= 3% urea solution and Factor B: Three levels of age of seedling as A<sub>1</sub>= 20 days of seedling, A<sub>2</sub>= 30 days of seedling, A<sub>3</sub>= 40 days of seedling. Application of the treatment influenced independently and also in combination on the growth and yield of broccoli. In case of starter solution, the highest yield (24.32 t/ha) was obtained from S<sub>2</sub> (2% urea) treatment, whereas the lowest yield (13.21 t/ha) was recorded from S<sub>0 </sub>(0% urea) treatment. For three level of age of seedling the highest yield (20.75 t/ha) was obtained from A<sub>2 </sub>(30 days old seedling) treatment and the lowest yield (15.48 t/ha) was recorded from A<sub>3 </sub>(40 days old seedling) treatment. In case of combined effect the highest yield (26.91 t/ha) of broccoli was obtained from the treatment combination of S<sub>2</sub>A<sub>2</sub> while the lowest (13.41 t/ha) was obtained from S<sub>0</sub>A<sub>3</sub> treatment combination. Economic analysis revealed that S<sub>2</sub>A<sub>2</sub> treatment combination was the best in respect of net return (3,24,890 tk) with benefit cost ratio of&nbsp; 2.5. So it may be concluded that 2% starter solution and 30 days age seedling was best for growth and yield of broccoli.</p> Ismita Akter Soniya Tahmina Mostarin Khaleda Khatun Md. Ehsanul Haq Sanjida Akhter Iffat Sharmin Shirajum Monira Anannya Parvin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-24 2019-09-24 1 11 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v4i430081 Genetics of Inheritance and Interrelationship of Various Agronomic Traits of F2 Population in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) <p><strong>Background: </strong>Cotton (<em>Gossypium hirsutum</em> L.) is grown in more than sixty countries worldwide. It is an important fiber crop in the world. It plays a vital role in our national economy being the source of earning of foreign exchange, therefore, it is considered to be the backbone of the economy of Pakistan. In Pakistan, millions of families are associated with cotton and textile industry for their livelihood.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Results: </strong>In this experiment F<sub>2</sub> population of the cross L. A. Frego Bract x CIM-600 and their parents was sown in randomized complete block design with three replications during normal growing season of the year 2014 to sort out best performing genotypes for yield related traits. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that parental and their F<sub>2 </sub>population showed significant differences for all the observed agronomic traits (plant height, number of monopodia branches, number of sympodial branches, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, ginning out turn, bract type, boll shape, beak size, seed cotton yield, staple length, fiber strength and fiber fineness). Estimation of correlation revealed that seed cotton yield was found positively correlated sympodial branches, fiber fineness and boll weight while ginning out turn, bract type, beak size, staple length and fiber strength were negatively associated with seed cotton yield. Epistasis was not found to be involved in any of the traits.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>The correlation and genetics study of various yield related traits provides us useful information for effective selection and sustainable breeding programs. Estimation of broad sense heritability ( ) in F<sub>2 </sub>populations for different traits vary as following order; ginning out turn&gt;plant height&gt;seed cotton yield&gt;sympodia branches&gt;fiber length&gt;fiber strength&gt;bolls per plant&gt;monopodia branches&gt;boll weight&gt;fiber fineness with heritability 0.90, 0.79, 0.78, 0.75, 0.73, 0.71 0.67, 0.64, 0.63 and 0.50 respectively. Results suggested form heritability and correlation that these traits can be improved either through appropriate selection method or hybrid breeding programme<em>.</em></p> Bilal Nawaz Saira Sattar Bilal Bashir Muhammad Jamshaid Khadim Hussain Tanwir Ahmad Malik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-18 2019-10-18 1 15 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v5i1-230082 Correlational Analysis between Growth and Yield Parameters of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) as Affected by Organic Manure and Inorganic Fertilizer in Jos <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the correlation between the growth and yield parameters of cabbage grown with organic manure and inorganic fertilizer.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experimental design consist of randomized complete block design with five treatments which were replicated four times.</p> <p><strong>Location and Duration:</strong> The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Federal College of Forestry, Jos, during the 2018/2019 raining season.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Land clearing was done and the land was properly demarcated based on the different treatments and replicates. Cabbage seeds were first planted in a nursery bed and later transplanted onto the experimental plots. Data was taken on the plant height, leaf count, cabbage head diameter and head weight. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 23 and Duncan Multiple Range Test, used to separate the means were significance occurred.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result of the correlation coefficient of growth and yield showed that a strong correlation exist between plant height and cabbage head weight (r = 0.681 and 0.648) at P ≤ 0.01. Plant height was also positively correlated with head weight (r = 0.365, P ≤ 0.05) and head weight was as well and positively correlated with head diameter at (r = 0.501, P ≤ 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that application of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer has positive correlations between the growth and the yield parameters of cabbage.</p> M. Obidola, Shakirdeen I. Iro, Ibrahim Anayib Mudi Akle, Silas Dapia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 1 8 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v4i430083 Current Status and Future Perspectives of Biofortification in Wheat <p>Wheat is the main cereal crop worldwide and about 2 billion people suffer from Zn and Fe deficiency because of their dependence just on cereal crops. Three Billion people are malnourished suffering from mild to severe physical and mental disabilities. Vast genetic diversity of Wheat exists in nature that differs in their mineral compositions. Main deficient micronutrients are Provitamin-A, Zn &amp; Fe which deficiencies cause serious physical and mental abnormalities. Different methods of enhancing mineral contents of plants products have been used, out of which biofortification has proved more promising and economical. Bacterial phytoene synthase gene (crtb) and carotene desaturase gene (crti) has been transferred in wheat that has increased carotenoid content but darker colour has less public acceptance.GPC-B1 gene is found to be associated with increase micronutrients but it lowers the overall yield of the plant. Several new methodologies such as oligo-directed mutagenesis, reverse breeding, RNA directed DNA methylation and genome editing have been used for increasing micronutrient composition and their bioavailability. But the combination of Plant Breeding methods with Molecular Techniques will be more useful for advancement in this field.</p> Muhammad Umar Rida Nawaz Aalam Sher Asad Ali Raza Hussain M. Waleed Khalid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-06 2019-09-06 1 14 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v4i430079