Effect of Organic Mulch and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Growth and Yield of Tomato Plants

Ihab I. Sadek *

Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.

Abeer A. A. Bakr

Soils and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena, 83523, Egypt.

Fatma S. Moursy

Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.

Tarek M. Younis

Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.

Emad A. Salem

Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Net greenhouse experiment was conducted through the 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons at Dokki protected cultivation experimental site, Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation to investigate applied two factors organic mulch i.e., (bagasse, compost, palm fibers, mushroom spent, sawdust and control), mycorrhizal inoculation (with and without) and their interaction on growth and productivity of tomato plants. The seedlings of tomato cv. Super strain B was transplanted on the 15th October 2019 and 2020. The experimental design was split plot with three replicates. Results indicated that applied compost mulch treatment, without mycorrhizal inoculation and their interaction enhanced all vegetative growth characteristics i.e., (plant height, number of leaves, number of shoots, stem diameter, fresh and dry weights of plant). Whereas, applied compost mulch treatment, with mycorrhizal inoculation and their interaction improved chemical content of (N, P and K) in leaves and increased average fruit weight and total yield/m2.

Keywords: Tomato, organic mulch, compost, Mycorrhizal inoculation

How to Cite

Sadek , I. I., Bakr , A. A. A., Moursy , F. S., Younis , T. M., & Salem , E. A. (2023). Effect of Organic Mulch and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Growth and Yield of Tomato Plants. Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, 8(4), 23–38. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2023/v8i4185


Download data is not yet available.


Kacjan-Maršič N, Osvald J, Jakše M. Evaluation of ten cultivars of determinate tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) grown under different climatic conditions. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica. 2005;85:321-328.

FAO. Global tomato production in 2017, Rome, Italy; 2019.

MALR. Agriculture statistics bulletin. Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Economic Affairs Sector, Central Administration of Agricultural Economy, Cairo; 2020.

Faied EK, Elshater AAM. Socioeconomics study of tomato production in Egypt: A case study. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research. 2022;11(1):312-323.

Zhang S, Wang Y, Sun L. Organic mulching positively regulates the soil microbial communities and ecosystem functions in tea plantation. BMC Microbiology. 2020;20(1):1-13.

Chai Q, Gan YT, Turner NC, Zhang RZ, Yang C, Niu YN, Siddique KHM. Chapter two - water-saving innovations in Chinese agriculture. Adv. Agron. 2014;126:149–201.

Ni X, Song WT, Zhang HC, Yang XL, Wang LG. Effects of mulching on soil properties and growth of tea olive (Osmanthus fragrans). PLOS One. 2016;11(8): 1-11.

Montenegro AAA, Abrantes JRCB, de Lima JLMP, Singh VP, Santos TEM. Impact of mulching on soil and water dynamics under intermittent simulated rainfall. Catena. 2013;109:139–149.

Mulumba LN, Lal R. Mulching effects on selected soil physical properties. Soil Tillage Res. 2008;98:1: 106-111.

Mikova A. Influence of the vegetation cover on the soil temperature. Plant Science. 2004;41: 216-219.

Prunty L, Bell J. Soil temperature change over time during infiltration. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2005;69(3):766-775.

Yordanova M, Gerasimova N. Influence of different organic mulches on soil temperature during pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivation. Scientific Papers. Series B, Horticulture. 2015;285-292.

Abul Hossain M, Hagque MM, Haque MA, Ilias GNM. Trichoderma – enriched biofertilizer enhances production and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopericon esculentum Mill.) and minimizes NPK fertilizer use. Agric. Res. 2012;1(3):265-272.

Pal A, Pandey S. A study on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) plant Biochemical and histochemical changes inoculated with indigenous AM fungi under Barren soil. Journal Plant Biotechnology. 2017;44(2):203–206.

Bhattacharya P, Jain RK, Paliwal MK. Biofertilizers for vegetable. Indian Hort. 2000;12-13.

Kumar P, Sharma SK. Integrated nutrient management for sustainable cabbage-tomato cropping sequence under mid hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Indian J. Hortic. 2004; 61(4):331-334.

Hodge A, Campbell CD, Fitter AH. An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus accelerates decomposition and acquires nitrogen directly from organic material. Nature. 2001;413:297–299.

FAO. Guide to laboratory establishment for plant nutrient analysis. Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 19; 2008.

SAS Institute. The SAS system for Microsoft Windows. Release 9. 1. SAS Inst, Cary, NC; 2005.

Awodoyin RO, Ogbeide FI, Oluwole O. Effects of three mulch types on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and weed suppression in Ibadan, rainforest-savanna transition zone of Nigeria. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension. 2007;10:53-60.

Sadek II, Youssef MA, Solieman NY, Alyafei MAM. Response of soil properties, growth, yield and fruit quality of cantaloupe plants (Cucumis melo L.) to organic mulch. Merit Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Sciences. 2019;7(9):106-122.

Norman JC, Opata J, Ofori E. Growth and yield of okra and hot pepper as affected by mulching. Ghana Journal of Horticulture. 2011;9:35-42.

Hong SJ, Kim HK, Park SW. Effect of mulching materials on growth and flowering of oriental hybrid lilies in alpine area. Korean J. Horticultural Sci. Technol. 2001;19:585-590.

Matsenjwa NV. Influence of mulch on ecological and agronomic characteristics of field bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Luyengo. Unpublished BSc. Agriculture Dissertation, University of Swaziland, Luyengo, Swaziland; 2006.

Kumar DK, Lal BR. Effect of mulching on crop production under rainfed condition: a review. International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment. 2012;2(2):8-20.

Gupta N, Kukal SS, Bawa SS, Dhaliwal GS. Soil organic carbon and aggregation under poplar based agroforestry system in relation to tree age and soil type. Agroforest. Syst. 2009;76:27 -35.

Tilander Y, Bonzi M. Water and nutrient conservation through the use of agroforestry mulches, and sorghum yield response. Plant and Soil. 1997;197:219–232.

Downer J, Hodel D. The effects of mulching on establishment of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Becc, Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl. and Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (H. Wendl.) H. Wendl. & Drude in the landscape. Scientia Hortic. 2001;87: 85–92.

Barman D, Rajni K, Pal R, Upadhyaya R. Effect of mulching on cut flower production and corm multiplication in gladiolus. J. Ornamental Horticulture. 2005;8:152-154.

Chawla SL. Effect of irrigation regimes and mulching on vegetative growth, quality and yield of flowers of African marigold. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Horticulture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur; 2006.

Sas-Paszt L, Pruski K, Żurawicz E, Sumorok B, Derkowska E, Gluszek S. The effect of organic mulches and mycorrhizal substrate on growth, yield and quality of gold milenium apples on M.9 rootstock. Can. J. Plant Sci. 2014;94:281-291.

Douds Jr DD, Lee J, McKeever L, Ziegler-Ulsh C, Ganser S. Utilization of inoculum of AM fungi produced on-farm increases the yield of Solanum lycopersicum: A summary of 7 years of field trials ona conventional vegetable farm with high soil phosphorus. Scientia Horticulturae. 2016; 207:89–96.

Ryan MH, Kirkegaard JA. The agronomic relevance of arbuscular mycorrhizas in the fertility of Australian extensive cropping systems. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 2012;163:37–53.

Ryan MH. and J. H.Graham. Is there a role for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inproduction agriculture? Plant Soil. 2002;244:263–271.

Koide RT. Nutrient supply, nutrient demand and plant response to mycorrhizal infection. New Phytol. 1991;117:365–386.

Douds DD, Nagahashi G, Shenk JE. Frequent cultivation prior to planting to prevent weed competition results in an opportunity for the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculum. Sustain. Agric. Food Syst. 2012a;27:251–255.

Douds DD, Lee J, Rogers L, Lohman ME, Pinzon N, Ganser S. Utilization of inoculum of AM fungi produced on-farm for the production of Capsicum annuum: a summary of seven years of field trials on a conventional vegetable farm. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 2012b;28:129–145.

Valentine AJ, Osborne BA, Mitchell DT. Interactions between phosphorus supply and total nutrient availability on mycorrhizal colonization, growth and photosynthesis of cucumber. Scientia Horticulturae. 2001;88:177-189.

Dasgan HY, Kusvuran S, Ortas I. Responses of soilless grown tomato plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (Glomus fasciculatum) colonization in recycling and open systems. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(20):3606-3613.

Maboko MM, Bertling I, Du Plooy CP. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza and temperature control on plant growth, yield, and mineral content of tomato plants grown hydroponically. HortScience. 2013;48(12):1470–1477.

Bowles TM, Barrios-Masias FH, Carlisle EA, Cavagnaro TR, Jackson LE. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on tomato yield, nutrient uptake, water relations, and soil carbon dynamics under deficit irrigation in field conditions. Science of the Total Environment. 2016;566–567:1223–1234.

Bryla DR, Koide RT. Mycorrhizal response of two tomato genotypes relates to their ability to acquire and utilize phosphorus. Ann. Bot. 1998;82:849–857.

Muhammad AP, Muhammad I, Khuram S, Hassan AUL. Effect of mulch on soil physical properties and NPK concentration in Maize (Zea mays) shoots under two tillage system. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2009;11:120-124.

Borthakur PK, Tivelliand SW, Purquerio LFV. Effect of green manuring, mulching, compost and microorganism inoculation on size and yield of lettuce. Acta Horticulturae. 2012;933:165-171.

Kumar R, Sood S, Sharma S, Kasana RC, Pathania VL, Singh B, Singh RD. Effect of plant spacing and organic mulch on growth, yield and quality of natural sweetener plant stevia and soil fertility in western Himalayas. International Journal of Plant Production. 2014;8(3):311-333.

Sadek II, Aboud FS, Moursy FS, Ahmed NM. Influence of substrate types and mulch application on growth, yield and quality of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.). International Journal of Science and Research Methodology. 2018;9(2): 90-117.

Opara-Nadi OA. Effect of elephant grass and plastic mulch on soil properties and cowpea yield. In: Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. 1993;351-360.

Bakr J, Pék Z, Helyes L, Posta K. Mycorrhizal inoculation alleviates water deficit impact on field-grown processing tomato. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2018;27(5):1949-1958.

Sallaku G, Sandén H, Babaj I, Kaciu S, Balliu A, Rewald B. Specific nutrient absorption rates of transplanted cucumber seedlings are highly related to RGR and influenced by grafting method, AMF inoculation and salinity. Scientia Horticulturae. 2019;243:177–188.

Latef AAHA, Chaoxing H. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzymes activity and fruit yield of tomato grown under salinity stress. Scientia Horticulturae. 2011;127:228–233.

Jamiołkowska A, Thanoon AH, Skwaryło-Bednarz B, Patkowska E, Mielniczuk E. Mycorrhizal inoculation as an alternative in the ecological production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Int. Agrophys. 2020;34:253-264.

Ordookhani K, Khavazi K, Moezzi A, Rejali F. Influence of PGPR and AMF on antioxidant activity, lycopene and potassium content in tomato. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 2010;5(10):1108-1116.

Jamiołkowska A, Księżniak A, Gałązka A, Hetman B, Kopacki M, Skwaryło-Bednarz B. Impact of abiotic factors on development of the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil. Int. Agrophys. 2018;32:133-140.

Cimen I, Pirinc VEDA, Doran I, Turgay B. Effect of soil solarization and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices) on yield and blossom-end rot of tomato. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2010; 12: 551-555.

George E, Häussler K, Vetterlein D, Gorgus E, Marschner H. Water and nutrient translocation by hyphae of Glomus mosseae. Can. J. Botany. 1992;70:2130-2137.

Kothari SK, Marschner H, George E. Effect of VA mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere microorganisms on root and shoot morphology, growth and water relations in maize. New Phytologist. 1990;116:303-311.

Ruiz-Lozano JM, Azcon R, Gomez M. Alleviation of salt stress by arbuscular-mycorrhizal Glomus species in Lactuca sativa plants. Physiol. Plantarum. 1996;98(4):767-772.

Alenazi M, Abdel-Razzak H, Ibrahim A, Wahb-Allah M, Alsadon A. Response of muskmelon cultivars to plastic mulch and irrigation regimes under greenhouse conditions. The J. Animal & Plant Sci. 2015;25(5):1398-1410.

Chen Y, Katan J. Effect of solar heating of soils by transparent polyethylene mulching on their chemical properties. Soil Science. 1980;130:271-277.

Gandhi N, Bains GS. Effect of mulching and date of transplanting on yield contributing characters of tomato. Journal Research Punjab Agriculture University India. 2006;43:6-9.

Khurshid K, Iqbal M, Arif MS, Nawaz A. Effect of tillage and mulch on soil physical properties and growth of maize. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2006;8:593–596.

Bosco M, Giovannetti G, Picard C, Baruffa E, Brondolo A, Sabbioni F. Commercial plant-probiotic microorganisms for sustainable organic tomato production systems. In: Improving sustainability in organic and lowinput food production systems (Eds U. Niggli, C. Leifert, T. Alföldi, L. Lück, H. Willer) . Proc. 3rd QLIF Congress, Stuttgart, FiBL, Frick. 2007;268-271.

Subramanian KS, Santhanakrishnan P, Balasubramanian P. Responses of field grown tomato plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization under varying intensities of drought stress. Sci. Hortic. 2006;107(3):245-253.

Nzanza B, Marais D, Soundy P. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation and biochar amendment on growth and yield of tomato. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2012;14:965-969.

Colella T, Candido V, Campanelli G, Camele I, Battaglia D. Effect of irrigation regimes and artificial mycorrhization on insect pest infestations and yield in tomato crop. Phytoparasitica. 2014;42(2):235-246.

Candido V, Campanelli G, D’Addabbo T, Castronuovo D, Perniola M, Camele I. Growth and yield promoting effect of artificial mycorrhization on field tomato at different irrigation regimes. Sci. Hortic. 2015;187:35-43.

Conversa G, Lazzizera C, Bonasia A, Elia A. Yield and phosphorus uptake of a processing tomato crop grown at different phosphorus levels in a calcareous soil as affected by mycorrhizal inoculation under field conditions. Biol. Fert. Soils. 2013;49(6): 691-703.

Damaiyanti DRR, Aini N, Soelistyono R. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) under salinity stress. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management. 2015;3(1):447 – 452.

Gosling P, Hodge A, Goodlass G, Bending GD. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and organic farming. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2006;113:17–35.

Guillermo AG, Parádi I, Burger K, Baar J, Kuyper TW, Scholten OE, Kik C. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in onion roots from organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. MYCORRHIZA. 2009;19(5):317-328.