Ecological Studies of Tridax procumbens (Linn) and Ageratum conyzoides (Linn) and the comparative Studies of Their Phytochemical

Anyanele Wisdom Chibuzo *

Department of Botany, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Anyanele Ijeoma Sylvalyn

Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Ezenwata Ifeoma Sussan

Department of Biological Sciences, Chukwuemeka Odimegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Okoye Elochukwu Chidubem Sunday

Department of Microbiology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Ofobeze Tochukwu Nosike

Department of Botany, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Shalom Tonna Ubaezuonu

Department of Botany, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Tridax procumbens and Ageratum conyzoides are two plant species commonly found in tropical regions and have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. Field surveys were conducted in selected sites across Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria to assess the distribution and abundance of the two species. Data on soil moisture, light intensity, temperature, and altitude were also collected to determine the ecological factors that influence their growth and distribution. Phytochemically, the main constituents present in these plants using various techniques including chromatography and spectroscopy were isolated and identified. Results showed that the two plants have different ecological niches and exhibit varying levels of phytochemical diversity. Both plants were found to contain compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids, which may have potential medicinal properties. The leaves of Tridax procumbens and Ageratum conizoides were used for this study, and it was evaluated and compared for total saponin, total flavonoids and other secondary metabolites using standard procedures. The study of two different samples from the two plant species revealed the presence of saponin, tannin, alkaloid, flavonoid, steroid. The dried sample of Tridax gave a higher composition of saponin (1.85±0.03 mg/100g), flavonoids (1.34±0.03 mg/100g), tannin (2.51±0.02 mg/100g), alkaloids (1.49±0.02 mg/100g) and steroid (0.26±0.02 mg/100g), while the dry sample of Ageratum gave a composition of (1.68±0.03 mg/100g) of total saponins, (1.95±0.03 mg/100g) of total flavonoids, (0.06±0.02 mg/100g) of total phenol, (2.14±0.02 mg/100g) of alkaloids, (0.26±0.02 mg/100g) of total Terpenoid. There is significant difference between the phytochemicals seen in the two samples. Thus, this reveals that Tridax plant has more tannin which is used medicinally to lower total cholesterol and lower blood pressure, while Ageratum plant contains more saponins which is used medicinally to decrease blood lipids and lower cancer risks.

Keywords: Phytochemicals, cancer risks, ecological niches, traditional medicine


How to Cite

Chibuzo , A. W., Sylvalyn , A. I., Sussan , E. I., Sunday , O. E. C., Nosike , O. T., & Ubaezuonu , S. T. (2023). Ecological Studies of Tridax procumbens (Linn) and Ageratum conyzoides (Linn) and the comparative Studies of Their Phytochemical. Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, 8(4), 240–254. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2023/v8i4204

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