Effects of Exhaust Pollutants and Garden Soil on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Main Article Content

Namrah Zafar
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal
Muhammad Shafiq
Muhammad Kabir
Zia-ur-Rehman Farooqi


Aim: This study was conducted to examine the effects of exhaust pollutants and garden soil extract on seed germination and seedling growth of some economically important crops, maize and sunflower.

Study Design: The in-vitro experimental design was completely randomized.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental site was Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Pakistan and the experiment was lasted for 10 days in Ecology laboratory.

Methodology: The seeds of maize and sunflower were placed in front of the generator to exposed exhaust pollutants daily, 10 minutes, for 10 days. After the exposure of exhaust gas seeds were shifted into Petri dishes. The garden soil was obtained from mini garden of the Department of Botany, University of Karachi. The different concentrations of garden soil with distilled water were made and filtered. This filtered solution was assumed as the standard solution, which was 100%. From this standard solution, further dilution of 25%, 50% and 75% were made. Distilled water was used as a control for the experiment. Three best seedlings were selected from each Petri dish for the determination of mean values of seed germination (percentage), root, shoot and seedling length and seedling dry weight.  

Results: This publication will help to understand the importance of exhaust pollutant impact and soil on crop growth and productivity. The soil quality influences plant growth and identifies the impact of exhaust emission on plant growth. The effects of exhaust pollutants of the generator and different concentration of garden soil on seed germination and seedling growth of two important crops Zea mays (L.) maize and sunflower Helianthus annuus (L.) were recorded. The treatment of different concentration of garden soil extract (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) affected seed germination percentage, root, shoot, and seedling length and seedling dry weight of both crop species. The soil extract at 25% significantly (p<0.05) affected the seed germination percentage of H. annuus as compared to control. The treatment of soil extract also decreased seedling growth performance of Z. mays and H. annuus as compared to control. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in seedling length of Z. mays becomes evident that exhaust treatment affected the seedling dry weight performance of maize as compared to control. Similarly, exposure of exhaust pollutant affected the seedling dry weight of Z. mays and H. annuus as compared to control treatment.  The effects of garden soil extract on seed germination and seedling growth of Z. mays was found higher as compared H. annuus.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of exhaust emissions from a portable power generator fueled negatively affected the seed germination and seedling growth performance of maize and sunflower as compared to control treatment. A comparison between the seed germination percentage, seedling growth and biomass production performance of maize was found highly affected as compared to sunflower.

Biomass, germination, growth, maize, petrol generator, seeds, sunflower

Article Details

How to Cite
Zafar, N., Iqbal, M. Z., Shafiq, M., Kabir, M., & Farooqi, Z.- ur-R. (2019). Effects of Exhaust Pollutants and Garden Soil on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, 4(2), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v4i230065
Original Research Article


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