Seed Priming Methods: Application in Field Crops and Future Perspectives

Main Article Content

Mohammad Saidur Rhaman
Farjana Rauf
Shaila Shermin Tania
Mousumi Khatun


To reach in good plant stand, the life cycle of plants is faced with different critical stages such as uneven seed germination, poor and early seedling growth which ultimately results in low crop yield. It is well known that seed priming enhances germination, reduces seedling emergence time, and improves yield and yield contributing characters of plants. Seed priming is a physiological technique of seed hydration and drying to improve the metabolic process prior to germination to fasten the germination, seedling growth, and crop yield under normal, as well as different biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Many researchers have done a lot of research on seed priming in field crops to enhance the final yield. However, different priming methods and their application in field crops are poorly described. Therefore, this review paper discusses seed priming and its different methods and their application in field crops as well as future perspectives of seed priming.

Germination, halo-priming, hormonal priming, hydro-priming, seed priming

Article Details

How to Cite
Rhaman, M. S., Rauf, F., Tania, S. S., & Khatun, M. (2020). Seed Priming Methods: Application in Field Crops and Future Perspectives. Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, 5(2), 8-19.
Review Article


Dawood MG. Stimulating plant tolerance against abiotic stress through seed priming. In: Advances in Seed Priming. Springer, Singapore. 2018;147-183.

Ghassemi-Golezani K, Hosseinzadeh-Mahootchy A, Zehtab-Salmasi S, Tourchi M. Improving field performance of aged chickpea seeds by hydro-priming under water stress. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. 2012;2:168-176.

Dalil B. Response of medicinal plants to seed priming: A review. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environ-mental Sciences. 2014;4(2):741-745.

Bagheri MZ. The effect of maize priming on germination characteristics, catalase and peroxidase enzyme activity and total protein content under salt stress. International Journal of Bioscience. 2014;4(2):104-112.


Lara TS, Lira JMS, Rodrigues AC, Rakocevi M, Alvarenga AA. Potassium nitrate priming affects the activity of nitrate reductase and antioxidant enzymes in tomato germination. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6(2):72.


Dutta P. Seed priming: New vistas and contemporary perspectives. In Advances in Seed Priming. Springer, Singapore. 2018;3-22.

Sadeghian SY, Yavari N. Effect of water‐deficit stress on germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 2004;190(2):138-144.


Waqas M, Korres NE, Khan MD, Nizami AS, et al. Advances in the concept and methods of seed priming. In Priming and Pretreatment of Seeds and Seedlings. Springer, Singapore. 2019;11-41.

Arif M, Jan MT, Marwat KB, Khan MA. Seed priming improves emergence and yield of soybean. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2008;40(3):1169-1177.

Farooq MA, Wahid DJ. Exogenously applied polyamines increase drought tolerance of rice by improving leaf water status, photosynthesis and membrane properties. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 2009;31:937-945.


Nascimento WM. Muskmelon seed germination and seedling development in response to seed priming. Scientia Agricola. 2003;60:71-75.


Hussain M, Farooq M, Basra SMA, Ahmad N. Influence of seed priming techniques on the seedling establishment, yield and quality of hybrid sunflower. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2006;8:14-18.

Varier A, Vari AK, Dadlani M. The subcellular basis of seed priming. Current Science. 2010;99:450-456.

Pill WG, Necker AD. The effects of seed treatments on germination and establishment of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratense L.). Seed Science and Technology. 2001;29:65-72.

Tania SS, Rhaman MS, Hossain MM. Hydro-priming and halo-priming improve seed germination, yield and yield contributing characters of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Tropical Plant Research. 2020;7(1):86-93.


Bastia DK, Rout AK, Mohanty SK, Prusty AM. Effect of sowing date sowing methods and seed soaking on yield and oil content of rainfed safflower grown in Kalahandi, Orissa. Indian Journal of Agronomy. 1999;44:621-623.

Harris D, Joshi A, Khan PA, Gothakar P, Sodhi PS. On-farm seed priming in semi-arid agriculture: Development and evaluation in corn, rice and chickpea in India using participatory methods. Experimental Agriculture. 1999;35:15- 29.

Kumar A, Gangwar JS, Prasad SC, Harris D. On-farm seed priming increases yield of direct-sown finger millet in India. International Sorghum Millets News. 2002;43:90-92.

Nagar R, Dadlani PM, Sharma SP. Effect of hydro-priming on field emergence and crop growth of maize genotypes. Seed Science Research. 1998;26:1-5.

Al-Soqueer AA. The potential of seed soaking in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Monech) production. PhD, Thesis, University of Nottingham, UK; 2004.

Matthews S, Hosseini MK. Length of the lag period of germination and metabolic repair explain vigour differences in seed lots of maize (Zea mays L). Seed Science and Technology. 2007;35,200-212.


Roy NK, Srivastava AK. Effect of presoaking seed treatment on germination and amylase activity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under salt stress conditions. Barley and Wheat Newsletter; 1999.

Ashraf M, Rauf H. Inducing salt tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) through seed priming with chloride salts: Growth and ion transport at early growth stages. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 2001;23(4):407-14.


Jyotsna V, Srivastava AK. Physiological basis of salt stress resistance in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)-II. Pre-sowing seed soaking treatment in regulating early seedling metabolism during seed germination. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 1998;25:89-94.

Rehman S, Harris PC, Bourne WF. The effect of hardening on the salinity tolerance of Acacia seeds. Seed Science and Technology. 1998;26(3):743-54.

Ashraf M, Foolad MR. Pre‐sowing seed treatment—A shotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth and crop yield under saline and non‐saline conditions. Advances in Agronomy. 2005;88:223-71.


Eleiwa ME. Effect of prolonged seed soaking on the organic and mineral components of immature pods of soybeans. Egyptian Journal of Botany. 1989;32:149-60.

Sallam HA. Effect of some seed-soaking treatments on growth and chemical components on Faba bean plants under saline conditions. Annals Agricultural Science. 1999;44:159-171.

Chang-Zheng H, Jin H, Zhi-Yu Z, Song-Lin R, Wen-Jian S. Effect of seed priming with mixed-salt solution on germination and physiological characteristics of seedling in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under stress conditions. Journal of Zhejiang University, (Agric. Life Sci.). 2002;28:175-178.

Bajehbaj AA. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower germination and seedling grown under salinity conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(12).


Khan HA, Ayub CM, Pervez MA, Bilal RM, Shahid MA, Ziaf K. Effect of seed priming with NaCl on salinity tolerance of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at seedling stage. Soil and Environment. 2009;28(1): 81-7.

Iqbal M, Ashraf M, Jamil A, Ur‐Rehman S. Does seed priming induce changes in the levels of some endogenous plant hormones in hexaploid wheat plants under salt stress? Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 2006;48(2),181-9.


Kadiri M, Hussaini MA. Effect of hardening pretreatments on vegetative growth, enzyme activities and yield of Pennisetum americanum and Sorghum bicolor L. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 1999;5:179-183.

Bennett M, Fritz VA, Callan NW. Impact of seed treatments on crop stand establishment. HortTechnology. 1992;2: 345-349.

McDonald MB. Seed priming. In: Black M, Bewley JD, (Eds). Seed Technology and Its Biological Basis. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. 2000;287- 325.

Salehzade H, IzadkhahShishvan M, Chiyasi M. Effect of seed priming on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Biological Science. 2009;4(5):629-31.

Hur SN. Effect of osmoconditioning on the productivity of Italian ryegrass and sorghum under suboptimal conditions. Korean Journal of Animal Sciences. 1991;33:101–105.

Liptay A, Zariffa N. Testing the morphological aspects of polyethylene glycol-primed tomato seeds with proportional odds analysis. HortScience. 1993;28(9):881-3.


Heydecker W, Coolbear P. Seed treatment for improved performance: Survey and attempted prognosis. Seed Science and Technology. 1978;5:353-425.

Jie L, Gong She L, Dong Mei O, Fang L, En Hua W. Effect of PEG on germination and active oxygen metabolism in wildrye (Leymuchinensis) seeds. Acta Prataculturae Sinica. 2002;11:59-64.

Toorop PE, Van Aelst AC, Hilhorst HWM. Endosperm cap weakening and endo-β-mannanase activity during priming of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker) seeds are initiated upon crossing a threshold water potential. Seed Science Research. 1998;8:483-491.

Afzal I, Basra SM, Farooq M, Nawaz A. Alleviation of salinity stress in spring wheat by hormonal priming with ABA, salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2006;8(1):23-8.

Bahrani A, Pourreza J. Gibberellic acid and salicylic acid effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salt stress condition. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2012;18(5):633-641.

Iqbal M, Ashraf M. Gibberellic acid mediated induction of salt tolerance in wheat plants: Growth, ionic partitioning, photosynthesis, yield and hormonal homeostasis. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2013;86:76-85.


Kumari N, Rai PK, Bara BM, Singh I. Effect of halo priming and hormonal priming on seed germination and seedling vigour in maize (Zea mays L.) seeds. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2017;6(4):27-30.

Yarnia M, Tabrizi EFM. Effect of seed priming with different concentration of GA3, IAA and Kinetin on Azarshahr onion germination and seedling growth. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 2012;2(3):2657-2661.

Yogananda DK, Vyakaranahal BS, Shekhargouda M. Effect of seed invigouration with growth regulators and micronutrients on germination and seedling vigour of bell pepper cv. California wonder. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science. 2010;17(4):811-813.

Galhaut L, de Lespinay A, Walker DJ, Bernal MP, Correal E, Lutts S. Seed priming of Trifolium repens L. improved germination and early seedling growth on heavy metal-contaminated soil. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2014;225(4):1905.


Mazed HK, Haque MN, Irin IJ, Ashraful M, Pulok I, Abdullah AH. Effect of seed priming on growth, yield and seed quality of chickpea (BARI chhola-6). International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development. 2015;2(7):142-47.

Zheng M, Tao Y, Hussain S, Jiang Q, Peng S, Huang J, Cui K, Nie L. Seed priming in dry direct-seeded rice: Consequences for emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events under drought stress. Plant Growth Regulation. 2016;78(2):167-78.


Taylor AG, Harman GE, Nielsen PA. Biological seed treatments using Trichoderma harzianum for horticultural crops. HortTechnology. 1994;4(2):105-8.

Mal D, Verma J, Levan A, Reddy MR, Avinash AV, Velaga PK. Seed priming in vegetable crops. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2019;8(6):868-74.

Khan AA. Preplant physiological seed conditioning. Horticultural Reviews. 1992;13(1):131-81.

Jisha KC, Vijayakumari K, Puthur JT. Seed priming for abiotic stress tolerance: An overview. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 2013;35(5):1381-96.


Mereddy R. Solid matrix priming improves seedling vigour of okra seeds. In Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science. 2015;80:33-37.

Mercado MF, Fernandez PG. Solid matrix priming of soybean seeds. Philippine Journal of Crop Science. 2002;27(2):27-35.

Kępczyńska E, Piękna-Grochala J, Kępczyński J. Effects of matriconditioning on onion seed germination, seedling emergence and associated physical and metabolic events. Plant Growth Regulation. 2003;41(3):269-78.


Zhang CF, Hu J, Lou J, Zhang Y, Hu WM. Sand priming in relation to physiological changes in seed germination and seedling growth of waxy maize under high-salt stress. Seed Science and Technology. 2007;35(3):733-8.

Andreoli C, de Andrade RV. Integrating matriconditioning with chemical and biological seed treatments to improve vegetable crop stand establishment and yield under tropical conditions. Seed Technology. 2002;89-99.

Pandita VK, Anand A, Nagarajan S, Seth R, Sinha SN. Solid matrix priming improves seed emergence and crop performance in okra. Seed Science and Technology. 2010;38(3):665-74.


Sukanya V, Patel RM, Suthar KP, Singh D. An overview: Mechanism involved in bio-priming mediated plant growth promotion. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience. 2018;6(5):771-783.

Callan NW, Mathre D, Miller JB. Bio-priming seed treatment for biological control of Pythium ultimum preemergence damping-off in sh-2 sweet corn. Plant Disease. 1990;74:368-72.

Lutts S, Benincasa P, Wojtyla L, Kubala S, Pace R, Lechowska K, Quinet M, Garnczarska M. Seed priming: New comprehensive approaches for an old empirical technique. New challenges in seed biology-Basic and translational research driving seed technology. InTech Open, Rijeka, Croatia. 2016;12:1-46.

Reddy PP. Bio-priming of seeds. In: Reddy PP, Editor. Recent Advances in Crop Protection. Springer. 2012;83-90.

Rakshit A, Sunita K, Pal S, Singh A, Singh HB. Biopriming mediated nutrient use efficiency of crop species. In: Nutrient use efficiency: From basics to advances. Springer, New Delhi. 2015;181-191.

Bisen K, Keswani C, Mishra S, Saxena A, Rakshit A, Singh HB. Unrealized potential of seed biopriming for versatile agriculture. In: Rakshit, A., Singh, H. B., and Sen, A. Nutrient Use Efficiency: From Basics to Advances (1st Ed.). Springer, New Delhi. 2015;193-206.

Müller H, Berg G. Impact of formulation procedures on the effect of the biocontrol agent Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48 on Verticillium wilt in oilseed rape. BioControl. 2008;53(6):905-16.


Jensen B, Vestergaard-Povlsen F, Knudsen IMB, Funck-Jensen SD. Combining microbial seed treatment with priming of carrot seeds for control of seed borne Alternaria spp. In: Elad Y, Freeman S, Monte E, (Eds). Biocontrol Agents: Mode of Action and Interaction with Other Means of Control. Cited in IOBC WPRS Bulletin 24, Dijon: INRA. 2004;197-201.

Callan NW, Mathre DE, Miller JB. Field performance of sweet corn seed bio-primed and coated with Pseudomonas fluorescens AB254. HortScience. 1991;26(9):1163-5.


Legro B, Satter H. Biological control of Pythium through seed coating and seed priming with Trichoderma. In: Bradford K, Hartz T, (Eds). Monterey Proceedings of the 4th National Symposium on Stand Establishment of Horticultural Crops, Monterey, California. 1995;235-7.

Warren JE, Bennett MA. Bio-osmopriming tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds for improved stand establishment. Seed Science and Technology. 1999;27(2):489-99.

Raj SN, Shetty NP, Shetty HS. Seed bio-priming with Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates enhances growth of pearl millet plants and induces resistance against downy mildew. International Journal of Pest Management. 2004;50(1):41-8.

El-Mougy NS, Abdel-Kader MM. Long-term activity of bio-priming seed treatment for biological control of faba bean root rot pathogens. Australasian Plant Pathology. 2008;37(5):464-71.


Kaymak HÇ, Güvenç İ, Yarali F, Dönmez MF. The effects of bio-priming with PGPR on germination of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds under saline conditions. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2009;33(2):173-9.

Rehman A, Farooq M, Naveed M, Nawaz A, Shahzad B. Seed priming of Zn with endophytic bacteria improves the productivity and grain biofortification of bread wheat. European Journal of Agronomy. 2018;94:98-107.

Rehman A, Farooq M, Naveed M, Ozturk L, Nawaz A. Pseudomonas-aided zinc application improves the productivity and biofortification of bread wheat. Crop and Pasture Science. 2018;69(7):659- 72.


Pill WG, Collins CM, Goldberger B, Gregory N. Responses of non-primed or primed seeds of ‘Marketmore 76’ cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) slurry coated with Trichoderma species to planting in growth media infested with Pythium aphanidermatum. Scientia Horticulturae. 2009;121(1):54-62.

Sivakalai R, Krishnaveni K. Effect of bio-priming on seed yield and quality in Pumpkin cv. CO2. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2017;6(12):85-90.

Gulick BR. Plant growth-promoting bacteria: Mechanisms and applications. Scientifica. 2012;1-15.

Timmusk S, El-Daim IA, Copolovici L, Tanilas T, Kännaste A, Behers L, Nevo E, Seisenbaeva G, Stenström E, Niinemets Ü. Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harsh environments: Enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stress volatiles. PloS One. 2014;9(5): e96086.


Anitha D, Vijaya T, Reddy NV, Venkateswarlu N, Pragathi D, Mouli KC. Microbial endophytes and their potential for improved bioremediation and biotransformation: A review. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;3:6408-17.

Sliwinska E, Jendrzejczak E. Sugar-beet seed quality and DNA synthesis in the embryo in relation to hydration-dehydration cycles. Seed Science and Technology. 2002;30(3):597-608.

Wright B, Rowse H, Whipps JM. Microbial population dynamics on seeds during drum and steeping priming. Plant and Soil. 2003;255(2):631-40.


Chiu KY, Chen CL, Sung JM. Effect of priming temperature on storability of primed sh-2 sweet corn seed. Crop Science. 2002;42(6):1996-2003.

Ghafari H, Razmjoo J. Effect of foliar application of nano-iron oxidase, iron chelate and iron sulphate rates on yield and quality of wheat. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 2013;4(11):2997-3003.

Maity JP, Mishra D, Chakraborty A, Saha A, Santra SC, Chanda S. Modulation of some quantitative and qualitative characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and mung (Phaseolus mungo L.) by ionizing radiation. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 2005;74(5):391-4.

Balakhnina T, Bulak P, Nosalewicz M, Pietruszewski S, Włodarczyk T. The influence of wheat Triticum aestivum L. seed pre-sowing treatment with magnetic fields on germination, seedling growth, and antioxidant potential under optimal soil watering and flooding. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 2015;37(3):59.


Siddiqui A, Dawar SH, Zaki MJ, Hamid N. Role of ultra violet (UV-C) radiation in the control of root infecting fungi on groundnut and mung bean. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2011;43(4): 2221-4.