Main Article Content
Aims : The aim of this work is to take stock of the level of ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) contamination in maize produced in Cote d'Ivoire in order to help improve its quality.
Study Design: Maize samples (375) were taken in five producing regions (Poro, Hambol, Gontougo, Gbêkê, Indénié-Djuablin).
Place and Duration of Study: the collection was carried out on maize in grain, on the cob and in spathe from February 2016 to January 2017. Then, the analyzes were carried out at the Biotechnology Laboratory, Agriculture and Development of Biological Resources of the Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY University.
Methodology: The determination of ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1 and zearalenone was carried out according to the methods of regulation No. 401/2006/EC, AFNOR, Miraglia and Brera.
Results: The results indicate the presence of ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1 and zearalenone in all forms of maize (grains, cob, spathes) and the five regions visited. However, the average concentrations of fumonisin B1 and zearalenone are respectively 27.46 µg/kg-1999.22 µg/kg and 8.48 µg/kg-341.84 µg/kg and are lower than the prescribed reference standards (2000 µg/kg ; 500 µg/kg). For ochratoxin A, the average concentrations vary from 0.83 µg/kg to 14.38 µg/kg ; 1.92 µg/kg to 18.60 µg/kg and 2.21 µg/kg to 134.89 µg/kg respectively for grains, cob and spathes.
Samples from the Regions of Poro, Gbêkê and Hambol have mean concentrations below the maximum reference limit of 5µg/kg. Thus, variability in the sanitary quality of maize was demonstrated from one region to another, regardless of the form of the maize. Based on the principal component analysis, spathes represent the form of maize most prone to high contamination regardless of mycotoxin and région.
Conclusion: The searching alternative storage methods and the right form of maize storage could be a solution to the high mycotoxin contamination of marketed maize.
FAOSTAT. Statistical databases on African countries “food commodities” trade, Production, consumption, and utilization. FAO, Rome, Italy; 2014. Available:http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/uploads/ice17-report-secu-aliment-industrie-fr-ecawa 2014-04-final.pdf.
Kouakou K, Akanvou L, Konan A, Mahyao A. Farmers' strategies for maintaining and managing maize biodiversity (ZeamaysL.) In the department of Katiola, Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2010;33:2100-2109.
Kouadio JH. Ochratoxin A in Côte d’Ivoire: ochratoxinogenic molds, human exposure and food detoxification. Revue Ivoirienne des Sciences etTechnologies. 2012;20:87-103.
Kouadio JH, Lattanzio VM, Ouattara D, Kouakou B, Visconti A. Assessment of mycotoxins exposure in Côte d’Ivoire throught multi-biomarker analysis and possible correlation with food consumption patterns. Toxicologie International. 2014;21:248-257.
Noudjou-Wandji F. Use of essential oils for grain protection, peanuts in Côte d’Ivoire. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2007;23:1000-1007.
Gueye MT, Seck D, Wathel JP, Lognay G. Pest control of cereal and legume stocks in Senegal and West Africa: bibliographical summary. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 2012;15(1):183-194.
Kayombo MA, Mutombo TJM, Somue MA, Muka MP, Wembonyama OM, Kebe K, Sembène M. Cowpea (Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp) field infestation by the bruchids (Coléoptera : Bruchidae) in the northern Senegal: preliminary biological and ecological data. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2011;41:2788–2796.
FAO. The Land Degradation Assessment in Senegal. FAO projectand Degradation Assessment. Preliminary report. 2003;59.
Kankolongo MA, Hell K, Nawa IN. Assessment for fungal, mycotoxin and insect spoilage in maize stored for human consumption in Zambia. Jounal of Sciences Food and Agricultural. 2009;89(8):1366–1375. DOI:10.1002/jsfa.3596
Kim EK, Scott PM, Lau BP, Lewis DA. Extraction of fumonisins B1 and B2 from white rice flour and their stability in white rice flour, corn starch, corn meal and glucose. J Agr Food Chem. 2002;56:3614-3620.
Sangaré-Tigori B, Moukha S, Kouadio J, Betbeder A-M, Dano S, Creppy E. Co-occurrence of aflatoxin B1, fuminosin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in cereals and peanuts in Côte d’Ivoire. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2006;23:1000-1007.
AFSSA. French Food Safety Agency: Assessment of the risk sassociated with the presence of mycotoxins in the human and animal food chains. Final report. 2009;308.
IARC. International Agency for Research on Cancer: Monographs on the medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene. In. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Lyon: IARC. 2002;82:171-74,
Niamketchi L, Chatigre O, Amane D, Nyamien Y, N’Tchobo F, Ezoua P, Kouame D, Biego GH. Descriptive Study of Maize Storage Methods (Zea Mays) Used in Rural Environment in Three Zones of Côte d’Ivoire. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science. 2015;4(10):663-672.
Bamba S, Biego HMG, Coulibaly A, Nyamien YB, Konan Y, Sidibe D. Determination of merchantability of maize (zeamaysl.) as epis, spathes and grains stocked in the production areas of cote d'ivoire. Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International. 2019;20(4):1-10. DOI:10.9734/JAERI/2019/v20i430120.
Mc Cormick. Determination of water activity. McCormick and Company, Inc. Manual of technical methods and procedures. Baltimore, USA; 1995.
AFNOR. Analysis of agricultural food products-procedure for single laboratory validation of an alternative method compared to a reference method. For quantitative analysis methods. NF V03-110/1998.
EC (European Commission). Commission Regulation (EC) No 401/2006 of 23 February 2006 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in food. Official Journal of the European Union, L70 / 12; 2006.
AFNOR. French Association for Standardization, NF en 13585 V03-124; 2002.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists. 17th Edition. Washington, DC, USA; 2000.
Miraglia M, Brera C. Mycotoxins in Grains and Related Products. In “Food Analysis by HPLC”. Leo ML Nollet 2nd eds. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York. 2000;12:493-522.
Adebajo LO, Bamgbelu OA, Olowu RA. Mould contamination and the influence of water activity and temperature on mycotoxin production by two Aspergilli in melom seed. Die Nahrung. 1994;38(2):209-217.
Codex Alimentarius. Code of Hygienic Practice for Low Moisture Foods CXC 75-2015 Adoptedin 2015. Revisedin 2016. Amendedin 2018. 2015;26.
OIV. International Organization of Vine and Wine: Compendium of international methods of analysis of wines and musts. Edition. Resolutions adopted in Paris (France). 2006(2);4163.
Chan S, Lee C, Yap C, Wan A, Ho C. Optimization of extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. IFRJ. 2009;16:203-213.
Ezoua P, Konan C, Coulibaly A, Sidibé D, Niamketchi L, Konan Y, Amane D, Chatigre KO, Biego GMH. Daily Intake of Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A from Maize Grain (Zea mays L.) during the Storage with Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) and Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) Leaves in Côte d’Ivoire. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research. 2017;3(4):1-13.
Niamketchi L. Contribution to improving the quality of grain maize (farmers' environment): monitoring of the quality during storage using biopesticides (Lippia multiflora, Hyptis suaveolens) in granaries. Doctoral thesis in Biochemistry and Food Sciences. Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Faculty of Biosciences. 2017;276.
Hadjeba-Medjdoub K. Risk of multi-contamination with mycotoxins and means of deactivation by the walls of yeasts and yeasts enriched in glutathione or selenomethionine. Thesis of the University of Toulouse, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse. 2012;328.
Sankara F, Sanou AG, Waongo A, Somda M, Toé P, Somda I. Farmer practice post harvest of maize in the Hauts-Bassins region of Burkina Faso, Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 201; 33(1):5274-5288.
Konan KC, Coulibaly A, Sidibe D, Chatigre O, Biego GHM. Evolution of Ochratoxin A Contents during Storage of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) Bagged PICS with Lippia multiflora Moldenke Leaves and Estimation of Daily Intake in Adult Ivorian. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture (AJEA). 2016;13(4):1-14.
Coulibaly A. Contribution to the improvement of the quality of cocoa beans produced in Côte d'Ivoire: evaluation of the marketable quality and determination of the level of ochratoxin A contamination. Doctoral thesis in biochemistry food sciences, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan. 2014;179.
Coulibaly A, Dosso M, Dagnogo K, Konan N’guessan Y, Dembele A, Biego GMH. Determination of the Level of Ochratoxin A and The Merchantability Criteria of Ivoirian Green Coffee Intended for Exportation. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2019;8(2):1065-1070.