Combining Ability and Heterosis for Some Yield Component Traits in a 10x10 Diallel Cross of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Main Article Content

T. Vange
G. O. S. Ojo
A. M. Ladan


A ten – parent diallel experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farms of the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria, to estimate combining ability and heterosis in rice. The design was a 10x10 alpha lattice with three replications and data was collected on plant height (PH), tiller numbers/plant (TN), leaf length (LL) and width (LW), days to flowering (DF), panicle length (PL), panicle exsertion (PE), spikelet numbers/panicle (SN), 100 seed weight (100SW) and days to maturity(DM). A preponderance of both additive and non – additive gene action with both negative and positive GCA, SCA and % heterosis was observed in the control of yield component traits in the studied rice varieties and their hybrids. Non – additive variance was higher, except for DF, SN and DM where additive variance was higher compared to non – additivity. Six parents, namely MGD 101, FARO 44, FARO 52, FARO 57, STRASSA 58 and IR 72 recorded the highest GCA values for most of the traits and the least values in terms of days to flowering and maturity. These parents were the most frequent in crosses with the highest SCA effects and % heterosis for Tiller number, Leaf length, leaf width, panicle length and Spikelet numbers/panicle. Crosses involving these six parents also recorded the least SCA effects and % heterosis for days to flowering and maturity. Based on the results of GCA, SCA and % heterosis, backcross breeding of F1s to their respective parents (the six parents), was recommended for improvement of yield component traits.

Additive, GCA, gene action, heterobeltiosis, non-additive, SCA.

Article Details

How to Cite
Vange, T., Ojo, G. O. S., & Ladan, A. M. (2020). Combining Ability and Heterosis for Some Yield Component Traits in a 10x10 Diallel Cross of Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, 5(4), 24-34.
Original Research Article


Garg M, Sharma N, Sharma S, Kapoor P, Kumar A, Chunduri V and Arora P. Biofortified Crops Generated by Breeding, Agronomy, and Transgenic Approaches Are Improving Lives of Millions of People around the World. Frontiers in Nutrition, 2018; 5:12

IRRI, 2014. Annual Report.
Available on

Vange T, Ojo GOS, Ayuba S. Effect of Sowing Method on the Productivity of Rice in Makurdi, Southern Guinea Savanna Ecology of Nigeria. European Journal of Physical and Agricultural Sciences,2016; 4(2): 57 – 67.

IRRI, 2001. Annual Report.
Available on

Nduwumuremyi, A., P. Tongoona and S. Habimana (2013) Mating Design: Helpful Tool for Quantitative Plant Breeding Analysis. Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics. 01(03):117-129

Nwilene FE, Oikeh SO, Agunbiade TA, Oladimeji O, Ajayi O, Sie M, Gregorio GB, Togola A, Toure AD. Growing Lowland Rice: A Production Handbook. Africa Rice Center (WARDA). 2015.

FAO. Annual Report, 2004.
available on culled on Dec. 7, 2015

Prasad SG, Rao LVS, Sujatha M, Chaitanya U. Heterosis and Combining Ability Analysis for few Cold Tolerant Rice Germplasms Lines at their Seedling Stage. International Journal of Development Research,2013;3(8):10-12.

Borgohain R, Sarma NK. Combining Ability for Grain Yield and Its Component Characters in Deepwater Rice. Crop Research Hisar, 1998;16(2): 215.

Ahangar L, Ranjbar GA, Nouroozi M. Estimation of Combining Ability for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars Using Diallel Cross. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences.2008; 11(9): 1278-1281

Akter A, Hasan MJ, Begum H, Kulsum MU, Hossain MK. Combining Ability Analysis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Bangladesh Journal of Plant breeding and Genetics. 2010; 23(2): 7- 13.

Rahimi M, Rabiei B, Samizadeh H, Ghasemi AK. Combining Ability and Heterosis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 2010; 12:223-231

Chopra VL. Plant Breeding Theory and Practice 2nd ed. Oxford and IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India.2005; 490Pp.

Youdeowei A. Growing Rice in West Africa. West Africa Rice Development Association, Bouake Cote-divoire and National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Bidda, Nigeria. 1992; 181Pp.

Griffing B. Concept of General and Specific Combining Ability in Relation to Diallel Crossing System. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences,1956; 9: 463-493.

Sarker U, Rasul MG, Mian MAK. Heterosis and Combining Ability in Rice. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 2002; 15(1): 17-26.

El-Namaky RA, Sedeek SEM, Hammoud SAA, Manneh B, El-Shafey RAS. Gene Action and Combining Ability for Agronomic Traits and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Rice In: Innovation and Partnerships to Realize Africa’s Rice Potential. Second Africa Rice Congress, Bamako, Mali, 22nd – 26th March 2010

Gila MA, Onovo JC. A 5×5 Diallel Analyses of some Agronomic Characters of Castor (Ricinus communis L.) Accessions in the Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology, 2015; 2(5): 155-161

Saleem SA. Heterosis and Combining Ability in a Diallel Cross of Eight Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) Genotypes. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 2009; 1(2): 66-76.

Kamara N, Asante MD, Akromah R, Kamara CS. Genetic Analysis of Yield and Yield Components in Oryza sativa x Oryza sativa Cross. African Crop Science Journal, 2017;25(4): 539-550

Jinhua X., Jiming LY, Tanksley SD. Dominance Is the Major Genetic Basis of Heterosis in Rice as Revealed by QTL Analysis Using Molecular Markers. Genetics,1995; 140: 745-754.

Nuruzzaman M, Alam MF, Ahmed MG, Shohael AM, Biswas MK, Amin MR, Hossain MM. Studies on Parental Variability and Heterosis in Rice. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 2002;5(10): 1006 – 1009.

Alam MF, Khan MR, Nuruzzaman M, Parvez S, Swaraz AM, Alam I, Ahsan N. Genetic basis of Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Zhejiang University of Science, 2004; 5(4): 406-411.