A Review on Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål), a Major Pest of Rice in Asia and Pacific
Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science,
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important staple food in the world including Asia and Pacific. Millions of people around the world depend on rice due to the high calories and economic returns it provides. More than 100 species of insects including 20 economic pests are capable of causing notable damage to rice plants. Insect pests continue to pose threat to rice farming since rice plants serve as their host plants. Pests are major constraints to rice production and coexist with rice growth. Information on pest economic importance, description, biology, distribution, economic threshold level, population dynamics, monitoring and forecasting is a prerequisite. This review is focused on brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) which is an important economic rice pest that are prevalent in tropical rice growing regions. Brown planthopper (BPH) is a serious pest of rice and has tremendous impact especially in Asia-Pacific region. Understanding the biology and ecology of this pest will enhance the designing, formulation and utilization of effective control measures. The control strategies as stipulated by integrated pest management (IPM) should be eco-friendly with minimum use of synthetic pesticides while boosting the activities of natural enemies and other biological control agents. The control measures discussed in this paper are oriented towards the cultural and biological aspects of managing the pest.
- Nilaparvata lugens Stål
- integrated pest management
- biological control
How to Cite
Kennedy D. The importance of rice. Science. 2002;296:13-13.
Paul T, Omot N, Linibi M, et al. Urbanisation and the decline in consumption and production of indigenous vegetables in Papua New Guinea. In: XXIX international horticultural congress on horticulture: Sustaining lives, livelihoods and landscapes (IHC2014). 2014;1102:245-252.
Rahaman MM, Islam K, Jahan M, et al. Relative abundance of stem borer species and natural enemies in rice ecosystem at Madhupur, Tangail, Bangladesh. Journal of The Bangladesh Agricultural University. 2016;12:267-272.
Heong KL, Wong L, Reyes JHD. Addressing planthopper threats to Asian rice farming and food security: Fixing insecticide misuse. In: Rice planthoppers. Springer. 2015;65-76.
Savary S, Willocquet L, Elazegui FA, et al. Rice pest constraints in tropical Asia: Quantification of yield losses due to rice pests in a range of production situations. Plant Disease. 2000;84:357-369.
Nirmala B, Muthuraman P. Economic and constraint analysis of rice cultivation in Kaithal district of Haryana. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education. 2016;9:47-49.
Prasad Y, Prabhakar M. Pest monitoring and forecasting. Integrated pest management: principles and practice Oxfordshire, UK: Cabi. 2012;41-57.
Way M, Heong K. The role of biodiversity in the dynamics and management of insect pests of tropical irrigated rice—A review. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1994;84:567-587.
Jolivet P. Interrelationship between insects and plants. CRC press; 1998.
Thongphak D, Promdeesan K, Hanlaoedrit C. Diversity and community structure of terrestrial invertebrates in an irrigated rice ecosystem. International Journal of Environmental and Rural Development. 2012;3:68-71.
Reissig W. Illustrated guide to integrated pest management in rice in tropical Asia. Int. Rice Res. Inst; 1985.
Wilby A, Thomas MB. Natural enemy diversity and pest control: Patterns of pest emergence with agricultural intensification. Ecology Letters. 2002;5:353-360.
Wu K, Guo Y. The evolution of cotton pest management practics in China. Annu Rev Entomol. 2005;50:31-52.
Ghahari H, Hayat R, Tabari M, et al. A contribution to the predator and parasitoid fauna of rice pests in Iran, and a discussion on the biodiversity and IPM in rice fields. Linzer Biologische Beitraege. 2008;40:735-764.
Fahad S, Nie L, Hussain S, et al. Rice pest management and biological control. In: Sustainable Agriculture Reviews. Springer. 2015;85-106.
Sorby K, Fleischer G, Pehu E. Integrated pest management in development: Review of trends and implementation strategies; 2003.
Cheng J. Rice planthopper problems and relevant causes in China. Planthoppers: New threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. 2009;157:178.
Zhang X, Liu X, Zhu F, et al. Field evolution of insecticide resistance in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) in China. Crop Protection. 2014;58:61-66.
Koya VM. Brownhopper, the destructive pest. Kurukshetra. 1974;22:13.
Krishnaiah N, Prasad AR, Rao CR, et al. Population dynamics of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens in Godavari Delta of Andhra Pradesh State. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 2006;34:158.
Fernando H. The brown planthopper problem in Sri Lanka. Rice Entomol Newsl. 1975;2:34-36.
Small GJ, Hemingway J. Molecular characterization of the amplified carboxylesterase gene associated with organophosphorus insecticide resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Insect Molecular Biology. 2000;9:647-653.
Alam S, Karim A. Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens)—a probable threat to rice cultivation in Bangladesh. In: Second Annual Bangladesh Science Conference; 1977.
Rashid MM, Jahan M, Islam KS. Impact of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on brown planthopper and tolerance of its host rice plants. Rice Science. 2016;23:119-131.
Tirawat C. Report on brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in Thailand. In: International Rice Research Conference; 1975.
Uawisetwathana U, Graham SF, Kamolsukyunyong W, et al. Quantitative 1 H NMR metabolome profiling of Thai Jasmine rice (Oryza sativa) reveals primary metabolic response during brown planthopper infestation. Metabolomics. 2015;11:1640-1655.
Ngoan N. Recent progress in rice insect research in Vietnam. In: Proceedings of a symposium on tropical agricultural research on rice insects ministry of agriculture Tokyo, Japan. 1971;19-24.
Khoa DB, Thang BX, Liem NV, et al. Variation in susceptibility of eight insecticides in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens in three regions of Vietnam 2015-2017. PloS One. 2018;13:e0204962.
Heong K. Occurrence and chemical control of rice planthoppers in Malaysia. Rice Entomol Newsl. 1975;3:31-32.
Latif M, Omar MY, Tan SG, et al. Biochemical studies on malathion resistance, inheritance and association of carboxylesterase activity in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens complex in Peninsular Malaysia. Insect Science. 2010;17:517-526.
Lee J. Biology and control of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens S) in Korea. The Rice Brown Planthopper. 1977;199-213.
Park J, Kwon W, Park J, et al. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nilaparvata lugens (stål, 1854) captured in Korea (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Mitochondrial DNA Part B. 2019;4:1674-1676.
Miyashita K. Outbreaks and population fluctuations of insects, with special reference to agricultural insect pests in Japan. Bull National Sust Agric Sci Ser C. 1963;15:99-170.
Matsumura M, Sanada‐Morimura S, Otuka A, et al. Insecticide susceptibilities in populations of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, immigrating into Japan in the period 2005–2012. Pest Management Science. 2014;70:615-622.
Kalshoven LGE. Plagen van de cultuurgewassen in Indonesië; 1950.
Diptaningsari D, Trisyono YA, Purwantoro A, et al. Inheritance and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), from Indonesia. Journal of Economic Entomology. 2019;112:1831-1837.
Varca AS, Feuer R. The brown planthopper and its biotypes in the Philippines. Plant Prot News. 1976;5:35-38.
Otuka A, Watanabe T, Suzuki Y, et al. A migration analysis of the rice planthopper Nilaparvata lugens from the Philippines to East Asia with three-dimensional computer simulations. Population Ecology. 2005;47:143-150.
Hinckley AD. Ecology and control of rice planthoppers in Fiji. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1963;54:467-481.
Hale P, Hale J. Insect pests of rice in the New Guinea Islands. Rice Entomology Newsletter; 1975.
Powell K. Antimetabolic effects of plant lectins towards nymphal stages of the planthoppers Tarophagous proserpina and Nilaparvata lugens. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 2001;99:71-78.
MacQuillan M. Influence of crop husbandry on rice planthoppers (Hemiptera; Delphacidae) in the Solomon Islands. Agro-Ecosystems. 1974;1:339-358.
Gurr GM, Liu J, Read DM, et al. Parasitoids of Asian rice planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) pests and prospects for enhancing biological control by ecological engineering. Annals of Applied Biology. 2011;158:149-176.
Heong KL. Are planthopper problems caused by a breakdown in ecosystem services. Planthoppers: New threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. 2009;221-232.
Dyck V, Thomas B. The brown planthopper problem. Brown planthopper: Threat to rice production in Asia. 1979;3:17.
Bottrell DG, Schoenly KG. Resurrecting the ghost of green revolutions past: The brown planthopper as a recurring threat to high-yielding rice production in tropical Asia. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2012;15:122-140.
Heong K. Biodiversity, ecosystem services and pest management. In: Second International Plantation Industry Conference and Exhibition (IPiCEX), Shah Alam. 2008;18-21.
Roger PA, Heong K, Teng P. Biodiversity and sustainability of wetland rice production: Role and potential of microorganisms and invertebrates. Casafa Rep. 1991;4:117-136.
Lu ZX, Heong KL, Yu XP, et al. Effects of plant nitrogen on ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal. in rice. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2004;7:97-104.
Catindig J, Arida G, Baehaki S, et al. Situation of planthoppers in Asia. Planthoppers: New threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. 2009;191-220.
Rashid MM, Jahan M, Islam KS. Effects of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium on host-choice behavior of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) on Rice Cultivar. Journal of Insect Behavior. 2017b;30:1-15.
Palmer L, Rao P. Grassy stunt, ragged stunt and tungro diseases of rice in Indonesia. International Journal of Pest Management. 1981;27:212-217.
Cabauatan PQ, Cabunagan RC, Choi IR. Rice viruses transmitted by the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål. Planthoppers: New threats to the sustainability of intensive rice production systems in Asia. 2009;357-368.
Jegadeeswaran M, Anandakumar C, Maheswaran M. Principal component analysis of morphological traits related to brown planthopper (BPH)(Nilaparvata lugens Stål.) resistance in 442 accessions of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Trends in Biosciences. 2014;7:2253-2256.
Pham VD, Cabunagan R, Cabauatan P, et al. Yellowing syndrome of rice: Etiology, current status and future challenges. Omonrice. 2007;94-101.
Higley LG, Pedigo LP. Economic injury level concepts and their use in sustaining environmental quality. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 1993;46:233-243.
Altieri MA. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. In: Invertebrate biodiversity as bioindicators of sustainable landscapes. Elsevier. 1999;19-31.
Altieri M, Nicholls C. Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems. CRC Press; 2004.
Prokopy R, Kogan M. Integrated pest management. In: Encyclopedia of insects. Elsevier. 2009;523-528.
Singh A, Kumar R, Das D, et al. Economic and environmental impact of integrated pest management in paddy a case study of Haryana. Agricultural Economics Research Review. 2004;17:69-84.
Palis FG. The role of culture in farmer learning and technology adoption: A case study of farmer field schools among rice farmers in central Luzon, Philippines. Agriculture and Human Values. 2006;23:491-500.
Chen CN. Economic thresholds of the brown planthopper in Taiwan. 中華昆蟲 4, ap4+. 1984;35-38.
Cheng C. Determination of the economic-injury levels of the brown planthopper in Taiwan. II. The population levels of Nilaparvata lugens in relation to yield loss of rice. Natl Sci Counc Monthly (ROC). 1979;7:1098-1102.
Chen C, Cheng C. The population levels of Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) in relation to the yield loss of rice. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan. 1978;20:197-209.
Liu XD, Sun QH. Early assessment of the yield loss in rice due to the brown planthopper using a hyperspectral remote sensing method. International Journal of Pest Management. 2016;62:205-213.
Nagata T. Monitoring on insecticide resistance of the brown planthopper and the white backed planthopper in Asia. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2002;5:103-111.
Wang Y, Chen J, Zhu YC, et al. Susceptibility to neonicotinoids and risk of resistance development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)(Homoptera: Delphacidae). Pest Management Science: Formerly Pesticide Science. 2008;64:1278-1284.
Rajna S, Chander S. Sequential sampling plan for rice planthoppers with incorporation of predator effect. Journal of Biological Control. 2013;27:10-17.
Okada T. Taxonomic characters for identification of the rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and its related species in the Asian and Pacific region. Taxonomic characters for identification of the rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and its related species in the Asian and Pacific region. 1977;1-25.
Mochida O, Okada T. Taxonomy and biology of Nilaparvata lugens (Hom., Delphacidae). Brown planthopper: Threat to rice production in Asia. 1979;21743.
Fennah RG, Fennah R. Delphacidae (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea) from the Sudan Republic. Suomen Hyönteistieteellinen Seura; 1969.
Denno RF, Olmstead KL, McCLOUD ES. Reproductive cost of flight capability: A comparison of life history traits in wing dimorphic planthoppers. Ecological Entomology. 1989;14:31-44.
Riley J, Xia‐Nian C, Xiao‐XI Z, et al. The long‐distance migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)(Delphacidae) in China: Radar observations of mass return flight in the autumn. Ecological Entomology. 1991;16:471-489.
Xue J, Zhou X, Zhang CX, et al. Genomes of the rice pest brown planthopper and its endosymbionts reveal complex complementary contributions for host adaptation. Genome Biology. 2014;15:1-20.
Jena K, Jeung J, Lee J, et al. High-resolution mapping of a new brown planthopper (BPH) resistance gene, Bph18 (t), and marker-assisted selection for BPH resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2006;112:288-297.
Reddy BN, Lakshmi VJ, Maheswari T, et al. Studies on antibiosis and tolerance mechanism of resistance to brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal)(Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in the selected rice entries. The Ecoscan. 2016;10:269-275.
Baehaki S. Perkembangan biotipe hama wereng coklat pada tanaman padi. IPTEK Tanaman Pangan. 2012;7.
Kisimoto R, Sogawa K, Drake V, et al. Insect migration: Tracking resources through space and time. by VA Drake and AG Gatehouse, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA. 1995;31-66.
Mochida O. On oviposition in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)(Hom., Auchenorrhyncha) II. The number of eggs in an egg group, especially in relation to the fecundity. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology. 1964;8.
Lei HC, Wang C. Studies on Nilaparvata lugens Stal in Hunan. Acta Oeconomico-Entomologica Sinica. 1958;1:283-313.
Mochida O, Suryana T, Wahyu A. Recent outbreaks of the brown planthopper in Southeast Asia (with special reference to Indonesia). In: Seminar on the Rice Brown Planthopper Tokyo (Japan). 5 Oct 1976; 1977.
Dyck V, Misra B, Alam S, et al. Ecology of the brown planthopper in the tropics. Brown planthopper: Threat to rice production in Asia. 1979;61-98.
Otake A, Hokyo N. Rice plant-and leafhopper incidence in Malaysia and Indonesia-report of a research tour January to March 1976; 1976.
Nasu S. Rice leafhoppers. The Major Insect Pests of the Rice Plant. 1967;493-523.
Grist DH, Lever RJAW. Pests of rice. London & Harlow, Longmans, London; 1969.
Nasu S. Vectors of rice viruses in Asia. The virus diseases of the rice plant. 1969;93-109.
Misra B, Israel P. Leaf and plant hopper problems in high yielding varieties of rice. J Ass Rice Res Workers; 1970.
Pathak M. Ecology of common insect pests of rice. Annual Review of Entomology. 1968;13:257-294.
Dyck V. Field control of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens in the tropics. Rice Entomol Newsl. 1974;1:22-24.
Stapley J. The problem of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) on rice in the Solomon Islands. Rice Entomol Newsl. 1975;2:37.
Stapley J. The brown planthopper and Cyrtorhinus spp. Predators in the Solomon Islands. Rice Entomology Newsletter. 1976;15-16.
Ho H, Liu T. Ecological investigation on brown planthopper in Taichung District. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan. 1969;11:33-42.
Soehardjan M, Leeuwangh J, Houten At. Notes on the occurrence of rice stem borer, gallmidge, leafhoppers and planthoppers in Java during the 1970 dry season. Contrib Cent Res Inst Agric Bogor; 1973.
Calora F. On the recent outbreaks of brown planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and the grassy stunt virus disease of rice in Laguna [Philippines]. In: 5 National Conference of the Pest Control Council of the Philippines, Davao City (Philippines), 8 May 1974. PCCP; 1974.
Mochida Q, Tatang S. Outbreaks of planthoppers (and grassy stunt) in Indonesia, during the wet season 1974-75. In: International Rice Research Conference, College, Laguna (Philippines), 21 Apr 1975. IRRI; 1975.
Cendana S. Insect pests of rice in the Philippines; 1967.
Kulshreshtha J, Anjaneyulu A, Padmanabhan S. Disastrous brown plant-hopper attack in Kerala. Indian Farming; 1974.
Abraham C, Nair M. The brown planthopper outbreaks in Kerala, India. Rice Entomol Newsl. 1975;2:36.
Bae SH, Pathak M. Life history of Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and susceptibility of rice varieties to its attacks. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 1970;63:149-155.
Hoppe A. The brown planthopper. Rat Fighter. 1973;7:38-39.
Narayanasamy P. Ecology and control of sap-feeding insects of the rice crop (Oryza sativa L.). Rice Entomology Newsletter. 1975;2:42.
Bae S, Pathak M. A mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter, predator of the eggs and nymphs of the brown planthopper. Int Rice Comm Newsl. 1966;15:33-36.
Kalode M, Krishna T. Varietal resistance to brown planthopper in India. Brown planthopper: Threat to rice production in Asia. 1979;187-199.
Krishnaiah N. A global perspective of rice brown planthopper management Ⅱ-after green revolution Era. Molecular Entomology. 2014;5.
Zhu P, Lu Z, Heong K, et al. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis,(Heteroptera: Miridae). PLoS One. 2014;9:e108669.
Stanley J, Preetha G. Pesticide toxicity to arthropod predators: Exposure, toxicity and risk assessment methodologies. In: Pesticide toxicity to non-target organisms. Springer. 2016;1-98.
Ooi P, Shepard B. Predators and parasitoids of rice insect pests. Biology and Management of Rice Insects. 1994;585-612.
Jaipal S, Malik R, Yadav A, et al. IPM issues in zero-tillage system in rice-wheat cropping sequence. Technical Bulletin. 2005;8:32.
Chiu SC. Biological control of the brown planthopper. Brown planthopper: Threat to rice production in Asia. 1979;335-355.
Lou YG, Zhang GR, Zhang WQ, et al. Biological control of rice insect pests in China. Biological Control. 2013;67:8-20.
Lou YG, Zhang GR, Zhang WQ, et al. Reprint of: Biological control of rice insect pests in China. Biological Control. 2014;68:103-116.
Sigsgaard L. Early season natural biological control of insect pests in rice by spiders-and some factors in the management of the cropping system that may affect this control. European Arachnology. 2000;57-64.
Zhong-Xian L, Villareal S, Xiao-ping Y, et al. Biodiversity and dynamics of planthoppers and their natural enemies in rice fields with different nitrogen regimes. Rice Science. 2006;13:218-226.
Settle WH, Ariawan H, Astuti ET, et al. Managing tropical rice pests through conservation of generalist natural enemies and alternative prey. Ecology. 1996;77:1975-1988.
Choi SY, Brady N. Screening methods and sources of varietal resistance. NC Brady. 1979;171-185.
Oka IN. Cultural control of the brown planthopper. Brown planthopper: Threat to rice production in Asia. 1979;357-369.
Kaneda C, Kisimoto R. Status of varietal resistance to brown planthopper in Japan. Brown Planthopper: Threat to Rice Production in Asia. 1979;209-218.
Song YH, Choi SY, Park JS. Studies on the resistance of'Tong-il'Variety (IR-667) to brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology. 1972;11:61-68.
Cheng C, Chang W. Studies on varietal resistance to the brown planthopper in Taiwan. Brown planthopper: Threat to rice production in Asia. 1979;251-271.
Pongprasert S, Weerapat P. Varietal resistance to the brown planthopper in Thailand. International rice research institute (eds) Brown planthopper: Threat to rice production in Asia, International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, The Philippines.1979;273-282.
Harahap Z. Breeding for resistance to brown planthopper and grassy stunt virus in Indonesia. Brown planthopper: Threat to rice production in Asia. 1979;201-208.
Mochida O, Heinrichs E. Strategies for the development of an integrated approach to rice brown planthopper control. Rice research strategies for the future; international rice research institute: Los Baños, Philippines. 1982;99.
Heinrichs E, Mochida O. From secondary to major pest status: The case of insecticide-induced rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, resurgence. Protection Ecology. 1984;7:201-218.
Hirabayashi H, Ogawa T. RFLP mapping of Bph-1 (brown planthopper resistance gene) in rice. Japanese Journal of Breeding. 1995;45:369-371.
Cha YS, Ji H, Yun DW, et al. Fine mapping of the rice Bph1 gene, which confers resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens stal), and development of STS markers for marker-assisted selection. Molecules & Cells (Springer Science & Business Media BV). 2008;26.
Rashid M, Ahmed N, Jahan M, et al. Higher fertilizer inputs increase fitness traits of brown planthopper in rice. Scientific Reports. 2017a;7:1-16.
Clark LR, Geier PW, Hughes R, et al. The ecology of insect populations in theory and practice. The Ecology of Insect Populations in Theory and Practice; 1967.
Mochida O, Tatang S. Occurrence of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hom., Delphacidae), on rice in Indonesia. Rice Entomology Newsletter; 1976.
Kiritani K. Pest management in rice. Annual Review of Entomology. 1979;24:279-312.
Baliddawa C. Plant species diversity and crop pest control. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1985;6:479-487.
Iamba K, Homband V. Intercropping of Pak choi (Brassica rapa chinensis) with Marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L.) and Onion (Allium cepa L.) to control foliar pests. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2020;8:731-737.
Garrood WT, Zimmer CT, Gorman KJ, et al. Field‐evolved resistance to imidacloprid and ethiprole in populations of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens collected from across South and East Asia. Pest Management Science. 2016;72:140-149.
Wu SF, Zeng B, Zheng C, et al. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) of China in the period 2012–2016. Scientific Reports. 2018;8:1-11.
Zhang X, Liao X, Mao K, et al. Insecticide resistance monitoring and correlation analysis of insecticides in field populations of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (stål) in China 2012–2014. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 2016;132:13-20.
Hua Wang Y, Fen Gao C, Cheng Zhu Y, et al. Imidacloprid susceptibility survey and selection risk assessment in field populations of Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 2014;101:515-522.
Matsumura M, Takeuchi H, Satoh M, et al. Species‐specific insecticide resistance to imidacloprid and fipronil in the rice planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera in East and South‐east Asia. Pest Management Science: Formerly Pesticide Science. 2008;64:1115-1121.
Heckel DG. Insecticide resistance after silent spring. Science. 2012;337:1612-1614.
Sparks TC, Nauen R. IRAC: Mode of action classification and insecticide resistance management. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 2015;121:122-128.
Abstract View: 96 times
PDF Download: 30 times