Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS <p><strong>Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science</strong> <strong>(ISSN: 2581-7167)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) on all aspects of Crops. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journalajrcs.com (Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science) contact@journalajrcs.com (Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science) Sat, 06 Apr 2024 07:22:19 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Improving of Amaranth (Amaranthus Spp.) and Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) by Genetic Resources https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/261 <p>The modern human population is more mindful of their diet and choose foods carefully in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent illness. Thus, instead of sticking to their long-standing diets of ordinary cereals and basic foods, individuals are starting to choose more intelligent and nutrient-dense dietary choices. Because they are gluten-free, have no added sugar, and are somewhat higher in nutrients than typical cereals, pseudocereals—particularly quinoa and amaranth—are significant substitutes. Both Amaranthaceae crops are hardy, low-input plants that can withstand salt, stress, and drought. Therefore, these crops might be advantageous to emerging nations with limited agricultural resources and subsistence agriculture. But these are neglected orphan crops, and for a very long time, there has been no attempt to enhance them by lowering their saponin content. These crops also have a great degree of variety, but their genetic development towards high-yielding genotypes is sluggish. This is because traditional cereals are facing problems, and crop diversification is the preferred solution to address climate change. The most recent technological advancements that can speed up breeding to increase agricultural output and quality are far behind and move more slowly than the world's primary crops that are already well-established.</p> Inam Ur Rehman, Narmeen Ayesha, Khadija Anam, Ayesha Khalid, Laraib Ali, Hina Nazir, Zabeehullah Burhan, Usama Sadique Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/261 Sat, 06 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mitigate the Impact of Various Abiotic Stress by Using Grafting in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and Other Vegetables: A Comprehensive Review https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/265 <p>Grafting technology has developed as a promising alternative to slow traditional breeding methods for boosting abiotic stressor resistance, soil pathogen tolerance, and fruit vegetable output and quality. Tomato, cucumbers, watermelons, eggplants, muskmelon and sweet papers have been grafted commercially to increase plant tolerance to factors such as salt, drought, waterlogging, the heavy metal toxicity, extreme temperatures, and variations in vegetable crop yield and quality. The goal of this study was to evaluate the research on the effect of grafting in reducing abiotic stressors and increasing vegetable crop production and quality. At different phases of culture, abiotic and biotic stressors harm tomato (<em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> L.), a significant vegetable crop globally. Drought, salt, floods, severe temperatures, and heavy metals may alter plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry, affecting crop development, production, and quality. Grafting technology is an excellent alternative to delayed breeding operations to reduce biotic and abiotic stressors. Grafted tomatoes have higher osmolytes, antioxidant enzymes, photosynthesis, which improves plant growth and fruit harvests and makes them more tolerant to abiotic challenges. Additionally, tomato grafting on proper rootstocks enhances fruit nutritional value, including lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, and proteins. This information may help researchers and producers improve vegetable quality, especially under abiotic stress.</p> Muhammad Faisal , Muhammad Kamran , Abiha Arshad , Muhammad Junaid Maqsood , Komal Rehman , Sama Usman , Pakeeza Farooq Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/265 Mon, 29 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Bacillus pumilus Strains on Heavy Metal Accumulation in Lettuce Grown on Contaminated Soil https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/262 <p>Increasing number of heavy metal on land needs to be addressed through sustainable ways and various species of Bacillus can be used to mitigate heavy metals. The research work entitled “Effect of Bacillus pumilus strains on heavy metal accumulation in lettuce grown on contaminated soil” focuses on functional role of Bacillus pumilus strains inoculated with lettuce seed in mitigating heavy metal present in chromite mining soil. This experiment was conducted at ornamental horticulture nursery, the University of Agriculture Peshawar. In this experiment, factor A was three Bacillus pumilus strains (sequence C-2PMW-8, C-1 SSK-8 and C-1 PWK-7) while soil used for this experiment was collected from Prang Ghar mining site and lettuce seeds were grown in three levels of chromite mining soil (2.27, 4.65 and 7.14 %).The experimental design used during this research was randomized complete block design with two factors and was replicated thrice. The collected data related to effect of chromite mining soil and Bacillus pumilus strains indicated that these both factors have significant influence on growth parameters. For mining soil minimum days to germinate (14 days) was noted in lettuce grown on garden soil inoculated with sequence. Maximum germination percentage noted was (100%) for C-1 SSK-8 grown on garden soil, dry weight of lettuce leaf (5.0 g) for lettuce inoculated with C-1 SSK-8 and C-1 PWK-7 strains, survival percentage (77.9%) for C-1 SSK-8 treated lettuce for sequence C-2 PMW-8. Maximum germination percentage noted was (88%) for garden soil, fresh leaf weight (17.3g), dry leaf weight (6.5g), number of leaf per plant (16), leaf area (49.0 cm2) were noted in garden soil with no chromite mining soil. Results related to heavy metals accumulation showed that minimum chromium was (2.3 mg kg-1) in lettuce and (1.9 mg kg-1) in soil for all three sequences. It can be concluded that chromite mining soil significantly reduced the growth and survival of lettuce, but when lettuce was inoculated with Bacillus.pumilus strains it enhances the growth and survival. Similarly, minimum heavy metal accumulation in plant and soil, regardless of type of B. pumilus used, all three sequences has same mitigating effect on heavy metal in both soil and lettuce. All the three Bacillus pumilus strains ensured reduction in heavy metals content (Cr) in lettuce, below the maximum permissible limits of WHO/FAO 2011.</p> Sabeen Alam, Mehboob Alam , Hafsa Naeem , Muhammad Adeel, Adil Riaz , Usama Zeb Awan , Abdul Basit, Burhan Ullah Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/262 Wed, 10 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Esterified Conditioner and Repairing Agent for Salinity Affected Agricultural Soil of India https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/263 <p>Various bio-conversion reactions given by lipases such as hydrolysis, transesterification, esterification, alcohoysis, acidolysis and aminolysis. The potential esterification process in soil plays important role not only as a fertilizer or nutrient but also act as a modulator to alter the conditions of soil and help in uptake of nutrient and minerals. This potential formulation accumulates micro-nutrients and mineral that promotes growth of plants. The trials of vegetable plants and grains shown significant increase in crop yield per hector area. The bulk density and field capacity of the soil are also significantly change and act as soil conditioner also influence the growth of plants. The micronutrients uptake of plant helps optimize the soil pH and improve the soil conditions. The inventors of present invention tested formulation as plant growth promoters that enhance crop characteristics like panicle length, plant height, grain or fruit yield and add to nutrient value of the crop. Our product is fatty acid composite which play crucial role as plant growth promoter along with reducing seed germination time and increasing plant crop yield, it also beneficial to work under water stress conditions and variant geo-climatic conditions.</p> S. Chaudhary, Ratna Trivedi , Jay Bergi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/263 Fri, 12 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Performance of Different Fertilizer Recommendation Methods on Growth and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa) in Old Brahmaputra Floodplain Soils https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/264 <p>Improving rice productivity is the challenge for the farmer due to rapid soil health deterioration in intensive agricultural system. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate comparative performance of different nutrient management practices in rice production in Bangladesh. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. There were six treatments namely, T1 (Control-no fertilizer), T2 (Farmer’s Practice), T3 (Fertilizer Recommendation Guide-2018), T4 (BAU Soil Testing Kit), T5 (Soil Test Basis) and T6 (Rice Crop Manager). The results revealed that all the treatments showed better performances over control (T1). Treatment T4 (BAU Soil Testing Kit) produced the highest value of plant height (90.18 cm), panicle length (24.90), filled grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> (122.60) and 1000-grain weight (26.67g) while T5 (Soil Test Basis) produced maximum effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> (12.80). The highest grain yield (6.29 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and straw yield (7.73 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded in treatment T4 (BAU Soil Testing Kit). Treatment T4 (BAU Soil Testing Kit) also showed the highest grain yield increase (61.49%) and straw yield increase (90.49%) over control. The highest total N, P and K uptake (108.84 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, 24.54 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 128.17 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) were obtained in the treatment T4 (BAU Soil Testing Kit). Control treatment T1 (No fertilizers) showed minimum performances in all the cases compared to other treatments. The overall result demonstrated that the application of fertilizers following BAU Soil Testing Kit method of fertilizer application system is a better option for rice production.</p> Shadia Akter, Md Hosenuzzaman , Md Anwarul Abedin , Md Anamul Hoque Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/264 Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Yield Maximization of Rice (Oryza sativa) through Integrated Nutrient Management https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/266 <p>This experiment was conducted on a permanent layout at the west byde of BRRI farm, Gazipur during T. Aman 2019 to Boro 2021-22 to find out the suitable management practices for yield maximization of rice and soil health. Seven treatments in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) Design with three replications were imposed and each treatment was assigned in 5m × 4m sized plot. The treatments combinations were T1= Absolute Control (No nutrient supply), T2 = BRRI dose N-P-K-S@83-17-53-12 kg ha-1 in T. Aman and 138-21-75-21 kg ha-1 in Boro season, T3= Soil Test Based (STB) Fertilizer Dose N-P-K-S @ 67-10-40-10 kg ha-1 in T. Aman and 134-16-75-10 kg ha-1 in Boro, T4 = STB dose + 1 t ha-1 Cowdung, T5 = STB dose + 1 t ha-1 Poultry manure, T6 = STB dose + 1 t ha-1 Vermicompost and T7 = STB dose + 0.33 t ha-1 CD + 0.33 t ha-1 PM + 0.33 t ha-1 VC. Thirty-days old seedling of BRRI dhan87 in T. Aman and fourty-two days old seedling of BRRI dhan89 in Boro season were transplanted at 20 cm × 20 cm spacing in both seasons. All manures, soil and plant samples analysis were done by the help of soil Science Division BRRI, Gazipur. Initial soil (0-15 cm depth) properties were: soil texture, clay loam; pH, 6.94; organic Carbon, 1.59%; Nitrogen, 0.18%; Phosphorus, 21.88 ppm and Potassium, 0.19meq/100g soil. Thirty days old seedling of BRRI dhan87 in T. Aman and 42 days old seedling of BRRI dhan89 in Boro season were transplanted at 20cm x 20cm spacing. Grain yield, tiller number, panicle number, plant height and grain number were significantly affected by the different integrated nutrient management during both T. Aman and Boro season. Grain yield, tiller number, panicle number, plant height and grain number were significantly affected by the different nutrient management in both T. Aman and Boro season. Poultry manure related treatments and BRRI recommended dose performed better than the others in all the parameter except 1000-grain weight. On the other hand, Absolute Control (No nutrient supply) produced the lowest result.&nbsp; Every parameter, Poultry manure treatments have been performed the best. STB dose with one t ha-1 poultry manure is better for maximization of rice yield.</p> Md. Mamunur Rashid, Setara Begum, Mohammad Rezaul Manir, Md. Sirajul Islam, AKM Shalahuddin, Afsana Jahan, Md. Mahamudul Hasan Musha, Md. Arefin Hasan Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/266 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BRRI Dhan107: High Protein Premium Quality Rice Variety for Irrigated Ecosystem in Bangladesh https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/267 <p>A newly released high protein enriched, premium quality type high yielding, extra-long slender grain containing rice variety BRRI dhan107 which suitable for irrigated ecosystem of Bangladesh, is an improvement over existing high protein enriched and premium quality type rice varieties for Bangladesh. The variety has satisfactorily passed the Proposed Variety Trial (PVT) conducted in the farmers’ field in Boro 2022-23 season. As a result National Seed Board (NSB) approved this variety for commercial cultivation in the Boro season (dry season) in 2024. It has modern plant type with 103 cm plant height and matures by 148 days. The proposed variety showed 1.20 t/ha higher yield than check variety BRRI dhan50. Identifying characters of this variety are green leaf, intermediate plant height, semi-erect flag leaf, extra-long slender grain, intermediate leaf senescence. On an average it can produce 8.19 t/ha grain yield, although with appropriate management under favorable environment it can give up to 9.57 t/ha yield. Thousand grain weight of the variety is 26.1 gm and head rice yield is 60.1%. High protein (10.02%) enriched BRRI dhan107 has high amylose (29.1%) with extra-long slender (7.6 mm) type grain. The high protein enriched, premium quality type rice variety BRRI dhan107 is a superb variety for cultivating in the Boro season (dry) and farmers as well as the country can be nutritionally and economically benefited by the cultivation of BRRI dhan107.</p> Md. Abdul Kader, Ratna Rani Majumder, Tapas Kumer Hore, Urmi Rani Shaha, AKM Shalahuddin Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/267 Mon, 13 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phytotoxicity and Residual Effect of Some Herbicides on three Egyptian Rice Cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/268 <p>The current study was carried out at the experimental farm of Rice Research Department, Sakha Agricultural Research Station and Central Agricultural Pesticide Laboratory, ARC, Egypt during the summer season of 2021 and 2022 to study the sensitivity of three Egyptian rice cultivars against four common herbicides and its effect on physiological and agronomic characteristics of rice as well as herbicide residues in rice seeds. The field study was laid out in split plot design with three replications. Three rice cultivars (Giza 177, Giza 179 and Sakha 108) were randomly distributed in main plots, while weed control treatments included four herbicides at recommended doses (penoxsulam 2.5% OD, bispyribac-sodium 2% SL, cyhalofop-butyl 10% EC and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 7.5% EW) as compared to hand weeding were devoted in sub plots. The obtained results revealed that Sakha 108 as Japonica rice cultivar was resistant against tested herbicides and recorded the highest values of rice dry weight, chlorophyll content, number of panicles m<sup>-2</sup>, panicle weight and grain yield, while scored the lowest values of total phenols. On the other hand, Giza 177 as short duration Japonica rice cultivar showed the higher sensitivity against tested herbicides and achieved the lowest values of abovementioned agronomic traits and chlorophyll content. Cyhalofop-butyl as ACCase herbicide was safer on studied rice cultivars and recorded the highest values of studied agronomic characteristics for rice as well as chlorophyll content, while recorded the lowest values of total phenols during the study. On the other hand, bispyribac-sodium 2% SL resulted in more toxic effect for rice cultivars and recorded the lowest values of studied agronomic traits for rice. fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 7.5% EW achieved the lowest chlorophyll content and highest values of total phenols during the study. Giza 179 as Indica-Japonica rice cultivar appeared high sensitivity when sprayed with bispyribac-sodium and fenoxaprop-ethyl but made recovery after 12 days from herbicidal application and recorded the highest chlorophyll content, dry weight, panicles m<sup>-2</sup> and grain yield with no significant differences between Sakha 108 rice cultivar during the study. In respect of herbicide residues in rice seeds, all tested herbicides didn’t have residues in rice seeds at 100 days after treatment. It means that tested herbicides didn’t have any residues in rice seeds.&nbsp;</p> Abd El-Naby, S. S. M., A. M. A. El-Ghandor, E. A. Abo Marzoka, H. M. Soliman Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/268 Thu, 16 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Allelopathic Impact of Callistemon Citrinus on Sorghum Bicolor Growth under Salinity Stress https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/269 <p>The current study assessed the impact of 0.09% aqueous leaf extract from <em>Callistemon</em> <em>citrinus</em> on the growth of two cultivars of <em>Sorghum bicolor</em> L. (Giza 15 - G15 and Dorado - Dor) under two salinity levels (100 mM and 200 mM NaCl). Results revealed that salinity reduced various growth criteria, including insoluble and total carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigments, protein, total phenols, and reduced glutathione, while soluble carbohydrates (sucrose and trehalose) were influenced. Salinity also affected free amino acids (proline and glycine betaine), malondialdehyde, and ascorbic acid. The activity of amylase decreased, while antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid oxidase, and glutathione peroxidase) increased. Additionally, concentrations of K+, Ca++, and Mg++ were reduced, while Na+ accumulated. Application of <em>Callistemon</em> extract improved plant growth under stressed or normal growth conditions. The aqueous leaf extract (0.09%) of <em>Callissstemon</em> <em>sp</em>., with its enriched phenolic allelochemicals, mitigated the impact of salinity by enhancing photosynthesis, osmoregulation, and the antioxidant defense system of sorghum plants. Furthermore, results indicated that <em>Sorghum</em> cultivar G15 exhibited more resistance than Dor, with this resistance correlating with the activity of the antioxidant system.</p> Hamed, Badr eldin Abd ElAal, Sayed, Mona Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/269 Fri, 17 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Local Management in the Varietal Diversity of Rainfed Rice (Oryza glaberrima) from Goh-Djiboua and Mountains Districts in Côte d’Ivoire https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/270 <p>The awareness of farming practices regarding the varietal diversity management of cultivated crops is essential for setting up an in-situ preservation strategy. The objective of the current work was to probe the varietal diversity status of the rainfed rice and its management design in farming conditions. The study was implemented from Goh-Djiboua and Mountain Districts as significant locations for rainfed rice production in Côte d’Ivoire, through descriptive investigation at field led from 450 local farmers of traditional rainfed rice varieties. Data on the anthropological, production, and post-harvest preservation of the traditional rice varieties were collected.</p> <p>The investigation evidenced the rice production as a gender activity accounting 58.5% men against 41.5% women. The most produced traditional rice varieties are spelled Danané (20.22%) and Danané fowl (17.80%). The rice seeds mainly result from self-production by the farmers investigated (91.3%), especially deriving from traditional varieties (96.6%). The cultivated lands are below 1 ha acreage for most farmers (63.1%) and are worked for auto-consumption needs (99.8%). Besides the survey exhibited four storage structures, most significant of which are the granaries (79.4%). Further attempts focusing nutritional and technological advantages of the traditional rice varieties could enhance their spreading in local culture of rainfed rice.</p> Aka Boigny Ange Aurèle, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Biego Godi Henri Marius Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/270 Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Dehaulming and Storage Conditions on Postharvest Parameters of Potato https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/271 <p>Potatoes are the fourth most important food crop in the world. Two thirds of them are consumed by humans, while the other third is used as animal feed, potato starch, and in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, textiles, adhesives, paper products, and other products. Two factorial Complete Randomized Design with two level of treatment combination was applied throughout the experiment. During the experiment, dehaulming and non-dehaulming practice was performed and the potatoes were stored in three different storage conditions (Cold storage, Bamboo basket and Gunny bags). The superiority of rotting was recorded in gunny bags followed by bamboo basket and cold storage. Similarly, maximum sprouting was observed in bamboo baskets with minimum in cold storage. The maximum final weight loss was observed in bamboo basket followed by gunny bag and cold storage. The superiority in greening was observed in gunny bags whereas minimum in cold storage. Non-dehaulmed potatoes showed maximum loss in observed parameters whereas dehaulmed potatoes showed minimum loss. The interaction effect of dehaulming and non-dehaulming with different storage conditions had significant effect in rotting at 20days and in sprouting at 40days whereas was non-significant in final weight loss and greening. Among all the storage conditions used, best result was obtained in cold storage with minimum storage loss. The farmers are suggested to use dehaulmed potatoes with the storage under cold store. As the potato was stored in 10-12 degree Celsius, there was no sweetness in the cold stored potatoes so preferred by the consumers for table purpose. Therefore, it is suggested to conduct similar research in different location using other varieties along with dehaulming practices.</p> Sudha Gajurel, Chandan Shreevastav, Sujan Khanal, Sanu Krishna Maharjan, Kshitiz Giri, Pawan Pyakurel Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/271 Wed, 22 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancing Yield and Nitrogen Utilization of Boro Rice with Urea Super Granules https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/272 <p>A field experiment was conducted at the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during <em>boro </em>season to assess the comparative performance of prilled urea (PU) and urea super granule (USG) on the growth, yield, and nitrogen uptake of BRRI dhan29. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatment combinations were T<sub>1</sub>: Control, T<sub>2</sub>: PU at 7 days after transplanting (DAT)+27 DAT+47 DAT, T<sub>3</sub>: PU at 10 DAT+30 DAT+50 DAT, T<sub>4</sub>: PU at 15 DAT+35 DAT+55 DAT, T<sub>5</sub>: USG at transplanting, T<sub>6</sub>: USG at 7 DAT, T<sub>7</sub>: USG at 10 DAT and T<sub>8</sub>: USG at 10 DAT+30 DAT where PU and USG were applied @ 216 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. PU was applied as surface broadcasting whereas USG was placed at 6-8 cm depth by hand between four hills at every alternate row. The results revealed that all the treatments showed better performances than control (T1). Results found that yield components, yield, and nitrogen uptake of BRRI dhan29 responded significantly to deep placement of USG than PU. Treatment T<sub>6 </sub>(USG at 7 DAT) produced the highest grain and straw yields of 6.56 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 6.95 t ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively. Treatment T<sub>6 </sub>(USG at 7 DAT) also showed the highest grain yield increase (57.16%) and straw yield increase (52.37%) over control. The highest grain, straw, and total N uptake of 87.28, 32.71 and 120 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively were obtained in the treatment T<sub>6 </sub>(USG at 7 DAT). The overall results clearly indicate that deep placement of USG at 7 DAT in rice field increases rice yield and efficient uptake of the applied N. So, treatment T<sub>6</sub> (USG at 7 DAT) could be recommended as best treatment for reducing N losses, conserving environment and improving sustainable production of rice.</p> Md. Mazedul Huq, Israt Jahan, Md. Anamul Hoque, Md. Rafiqul Islam Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/272 Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Optimization of Nitrogen Fertilizer Dose for the Growth and Development of BRRI Dhan47 https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/273 <p>An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period to study the effect of nitrogen on the yield of Boro rice cv. BRRI dhan47. The experiment consisted of four levels of nitrogen viz. 0, 80, 100, and 120 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> as treatment. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The level of nitrogen significantly influenced all the parameters except the weight of 1000-grain. The tallest plant (99.18 cm), highest number of total tillers hill­1 (13.23), maximum number of non-effective tillers hill-1 (4.18), uppermost panicle length (24.60 cm), highest number of sterile spikelets panicle-1 (18.50), top number of total spikelets panicle-1 (153.82) and highest straw yield (6.84 t ha-1) were obtained from 120 kg N ha-1. The greater number of effective tillers hill-1 (10.32), uppermost number of grains panicle-1 (135.32), maximum grain yield (5.36 t ha-1), top biological yield (12.01 t ha-1), and the highest harvest index (44.59%) were recorded from 100 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>. The dwarf plant (84.47 cm), lowest number of total tillers hill-1 (7.40), minimum number of effective tillers hill-1 (5.83), bottommost non-effective tillers hill-1 (1.57),&nbsp; shortest panicle length (21.09), lowest number of grains panicle-1 (84.90), minimum number of sterile spikelets panicle-1 (11.90), fewer total spikelets panicle-1 (100.88), the minimum grain yield (3.20 t ha-1), the least straw yield (4.67 t ha-1),&nbsp; lowest biological yield (7.87 t ha-1) and the lowest harvest index (40.71%) were obtained from the control treatment (0 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>). Based on the findings of the study, it can be suggested that the use of 100 kg N ha-1 would be a promising practice to maximize the growth and grain yield of BRRI dhan47.</p> Nice Afroz, Shakil Arvin Zomo, Jesmin Zaman, Md. Obayedul Hoque Reza, Md. Omar Kayess Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/273 Thu, 06 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in the Semi Arid Region of Brazil https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/274 <p>Cowpea cultivation is of great importance for farmers who work in this agricultural activity, in this sense, we evaluated the agronomic characteristics of cowpea {<em>Vigna unguiculata</em> (L.)} Creole cultivar (Semper verde), in the semi-arid region of Brazil.</p> <p>The experiment was carried out from November 2021 to February 2022 at the Rafael Fernandes experimental farm, in the district of Alagoinha (5º03'37 "S, 37º23'50" W), northwest of Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, with an area of 400 hectares.</p> <p>A randomized complete block design was used with five treatments, which will consist of planting densities (35,714; 71,428; 107,142; 142,856 and 17,8570 plants ha<sup>-1</sup>) with four replications. Each plot consisted of dimensions of 5.0 m x 4.0 m, with six rows of 5.0 m in length, with a total area of 20.0 m<sup>2</sup>. The spacing used between rows was 0.70 m, while intra-row spacing was 0.40m.</p> <p>The characteristics evaluated were: pod length, expressed in cm (PL), number of grains, expressed in pod<sup>-1</sup> units (NG), Pod weight, expressed in grams (PW), number of grains, expressed in pod<sup>-1</sup> units (NG), Weight of 100 grains, expressed in grams (P100G) and grain production, expressed in kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (PG) of cowpea, Creole cultivar (Sempre verde).Planting densities contributed greatly to cowpea productivity, with productivity of 184.82 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, at a density of 142,856 plants ha<sup>-1</sup>.</p> <p>The cowpea cultivar (Semper Verde) is agronomically viable for planting in the semi-arid region.</p> Maria Eduarda Pereira dos Santos, Paulo César Ferreira Linhares, Thiffany Louhanne Alves Dantas, Lunara de Sousa Alves, Roberto Pequeno de Sousa, Uilma Laurentino da Silva, Walter Martins Rodrigues, Joaquim Odilon Pereira, Pedro Ramualyson Fernandes Sampaio, Diego Zidane Fernandes da Costa, Débora Viviane Alves, Joyce Fernandes de Medeiros, Irene Leticia de Lima Cipriano Carlos Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/274 Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer on Morpho-physiological, and Biochemical Traits of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) Plants Under Water Deficit https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/275 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To evaluate the effect of water deficit (WD) and P-fertilizer on the growth and biochemical composition of Bambara groundnut.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three factors: landraces (L1, L2, and L3), single superphosphate doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 100 mg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>.kg<sup>-1</sup>), and watering regime (90% (control), 60%, and 30% of field capacity (FC)).</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I for three months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The seedlings (radicle at 2 mm) were sown in the polyethylene pots filled with substrate with the appropriate P-doses. The plants were grown for up to four weeks under normal watering level (90%_FC). Four weeks after sowing (WAS), the WD was applied by stopping irrigation and maintaining the desired FC. At harvest (8WAS), growth, physiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> P-fertilizer significantly improved growth and biochemical composition under WD or none. The plant height increased from 20.3% from 0 to 100 mg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> at 30%_FC to L2 at the 8<sup>th</sup> week. At 90%_FC, the doses 20, 40, 60, 100 mg increased sugars content by 52.6, 59.4, 64.6, and 90.4%, respectively, compared to 0 mg at L3. Proline content at 30%_FC was twice (2.5) that of 90%_FC at L2. Increased accumulation of sugars, proline, and amino acids in leaves was recorded at the severe level of WD.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> P-fertilizer mitigated the adverse effect of WD on the growth and biochemical composition of Bambara groundnut. A sufficient P-supply (60 mg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>.kg<sup>-1</sup>) was recommended to help Bambara groundnut plants tolerate WD. L1 and L3 appear to be more tolerant than L2 and can be recommended to farmers. As the adaptation mechanisms of these landraces to WD are different, it would be advisable to evaluate their performance in the field to better assess their behavior.</p> Nono Carine Temegne, Willy-Franz Gouertoumbo, Annie Stéphanie Nana, Victor-Désiré Taffouo, Emmanuel Youmbi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalajrcs.com/index.php/AJRCS/article/view/275 Wed, 12 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000