Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Organic and Inorganic Manures on Macro-Nutrients, Micro-Nutrients and Anti-Nutrients in two Amaranth spp in Kiambu Couny, Kenya

Kariithi Tabitha, Thagana Wilson, P. Gweyi-Onyango Joseph

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/38912

An experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of organic and inorganic manure on macronutrients, micronutients and antinutrients in two Amaranth spp.  The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial arrangement with three replicates, consisting of three factors which are A. tricolar and Acruentus Amaranth spps, three rates of NPK Compound fertilizer 17-17-17 at 0, 250 kg ha-1 and 500 kg ha-1.Three rates of quail organic manure at 8.45 t ha-1,16.9 t ha-1 and control (no fertilizer applied). Secondary metabolites were also investigated in the two amaranth species. The experiment was carried for two seasons. The result showed that, Nitrogen increased from 1.87% at control to 2.27% when 16.9 t ha-1+250kg ha-1 was applied in A. cruentus variety and at the same rate, A. tricolor had 1.79%, 2.93% at control and16.9 t ha-1+250 kg ha-1 respectively. In season one, at 16.9 t ha-1+250 kg ha-1 Nitrogen in A. cruentus increased from 2.27% to 2.73% but in A. tricolor the nitrogen content increased to 2.98% in the second season. The highest potassium was 1.03% in A. cruentus and the same variety recorded the highest potassium of 1.04% in the second season at 8.45 t ha-1 +500 kg ha-1.Iron increased from 69.58% at 16.9 t ha-1+250 kg ha-1 to 191.2% when 8.45 t ha-1+500 kg ha-1  of NPK was applied in   A. cruentusA. cruentus in season one at 8.45 t ha-1 +500 kg ha-1 had 40.33GAE/kgDM total phenolic content whereas A. tricolar at the same application had 40.67gGAEkg/DM, in season two A. cruentus had the highest total phenolic compound of 42.33 g GAE/kgDM. A. tricolor had 4.04 mg/100 gfw of oxalate in season one, in season two, A. cruentus had 3.25 mg/100 gfw whereas A. tricolor had 3.15mg/100gfw  in season two.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Parameters and Stress Tolerance Index for Quantitative Traits in Barley under Different Drought Stress Severities

E. F. El-Hashash, A. M. Agwa

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/38702

To determine genetic parameters and drought resistance in barley, an experiment was conducted at Kafr El-Hamam Agricultural Research Station in Zagazig, El-Sharqiyah Governorate, Egypt. The fourteen and two checks genotypes were evaluated under a diverse set of conditions that ranged from non-stress condition to conditions with moderate to severe. The analysis of variance displayed that yield, and other studied traits were significantly affected by seasons and genotypes (p<0.01), while, the genotypes x seasons interaction showed significant or highly significant for most studied characteristics during non-stress, moderate stress and severe stress conditions. The highest values of the mean performance for most studied traits were recorded under non-stress, followed by mild pressure and then severe stress for all or most the studied genotypes. Most studied genotypes were better than the checks varieties during non-stress, moderate, severe stress conditions. The variance components and heritability showed significant or highly significant for most studied traits under non-stress, moderate and severe stress conditions. The maximum values of genetic variance were found for most studied traits under drought stress conditions followed by the environmental and genotypes × season variances. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of the mean was observed for most studied traits under non-stress, moderate and severe stress conditions. The differences between phenotypic coefficients of variation (PCV%) were higher than the values of genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV%) for all studied traits during non-stress, moderate and severe stress conditions. The highest values of GCV% and PCV% were recorded for most studied characteristics during severe stress condition. The values of the relative coefficient of variation were higher than the unity for most studied traits during non-stress and drought stress conditions. Hence, these genetic parameters can be used as direct selection criteria for barley improvement under drought stress conditions. The values of stress tolerance (STI) based on moderate stress were better than the benefits of STI based on severe stress. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups, i.e., tolerant, semi-tolerant and susceptible. Based on mean performances, stress tolerance and cluster analysis, 1, 4, 6 and ten genotypes recorded the best values and are identified as the best drought-tolerant genotypes for most studied traits and can be used in future barley breeding programme during moderate stress condition in Egypt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Breeding on the Growth and Yield of Cucumis sativus (L.)

C. V. Ilodibia, U. A. Achebe, S. N. Udeorah, C. U. Arubalueze, C. E. Okoye

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/40122

Hybridization was carried out on two varieties of cucumber namely: Darina cultivar and Local Slicing variety to raise F1 to investigate the effect of hybridization on the growth and yield of the cucumber as shown in parental plants compared with the F1 hybrid. This was done using standard methods. Randomised Complete Block Design was used with three replications. Data were collected on the germination percentage (%), number of days to 50% germination, number of days to 50% flowering, number of days to 100% maturity, vine length, number of fresh fruit/plant and weight of fresh fruit/plant. Results were analysed using ANOVA. Results showed that the parental and the F1 hybrid plants differed in the growth and yield parameters. The F1 hybrid had the lowest number of days to 100% maturity (47.33±2.51) and the highest vine length (113.00±1.00) when compared to the parental plants. The highest number of fruits (5.67± 0.58) was also recorded for the F1 hybrid. Results of this study revealed that the F1 hybrid combined the characteristics of the Darina cucumber and the Local Slicing cucumber and also had improved characters. This can be seen in the growth parameters values of the F1 hybrid which are at the intermediate between those of the parents. Also, the highest vine length and the highest number of fruits/plant shown by the F1 hybrid. The obtained data thus indicated that breeding could significantly enhance growth and yield in cucumber plant production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Different Sets of Primers Used in Detection and Identification of Potato Soft Rot Pectobacteriumcarotovorum subsp. carotovorum (DYE1969)

I. Abu-Obeid, H. Khlaif, N. Salem

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/40431

Two hundred and four rotted potato samples were collected from different Jordanian potato growing areas and commercial stores. The isolated bacteria were subjected to morphological observation, biochemical and physiological identification as well as PCR. Using different sets of primers, and sequence analysis, 131 bacterial isolates were identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subspecies carotovorum (Pcc). Primers used; universal primer 16S rDNA Fd1/Rd1, species-specific primer ExpccF/ExpccR, recAF/recAR and pathogencity gene pmrAF/pmrAR. The results of our study showed that the four sets of primers varied in their specificity in detection, where recA and pmrA sets of primer were found to be more efficient in detecting Pcc. On the other hand, Expcc sets of primer were not so specific in detecting Pcc isolates where it was able to detect only 51% of the isolates. In conclusion, our results revealed that molecular techniques using the specific sets of primer was more sensitive and specific in detecting Pcc as potato soft rot causal agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction Effect of Growth Regulators and Irrigation Schedules on Growth and Yield of French Beans in Kiambu County, Kenya

Ikiba L. Kalawa, Wekha N. Wafula, Nicholas K. Korir, Joseph Gweyi-Onyango

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/40569

Inadequate and unreliable rainfall distribution in Kenya has affected negatively agricultural yields and family incomes. Integration of growth regulators can stimulate favorable crop growth under limited moisture, but there has been scarce research and documentation on them. Therefore the gibberellic acid and cytokine in effect on French beans growth and yield was assessed under different irrigation schedules at Kenyatta University Field Station in two seasons of 2014/2015. The experiment was set in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in split-plot arrangement with three levels of each hormone as sub-plots and three watering regimes as main plots and replicated three times. The results showed that optimum rates of growth regulators positively improved the growth and yield components of French beans. Significant differences between the treatments at P<0.05 were observed on the leaf area where the 0.50ml level of cytokine in had the greatest at week nine after sowing with 1335.3 cm2 during the first season and 1343.1 cm2 during the second season at a daily watering regime. Consequently, this led to significantly the highest pod fresh yield of the French beans with 58.97 g/plant and 84.99 g/plant for the first and second seasons respectively at week nine in the same treatment combination. The highest level of gibberellic acid (0.675 ml) led to the lowest fresh pod yields at week six, seven and eight, while the highest rate of cytokine in (0.750 ml) had the least fresh pod yield at week nine showing the negative effect of excessive application of growth regulators on French beans, yield components. The study, therefore, recommends an application of cytokinin at a rate of 0.50ml to achieve maximum yields in French beans.