Open Access Original Research Article

Phosphorus Rates, Intra-Rowing Spacing and Variety of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdc) in Makurdi Ecological Zone

M. M. Ellah, T. O. Aondo, J. N. Ellah, M. O. Obasi

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/41683

Field experiments were conducted in 2012and 2013 at the teaching and research farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria to determine growth and yield components of Bambara groundnut as influenced by phosphorus rates, intra-row spacing and variety of Bambara groundnut in Southern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria. Treatment consists of factorial combinations of two varieties (Petegi Black and Ogoja White), three levels of phosphorus (0, 20 and 40 kg/ha) and three intra-row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) replicated three times. This was laid out in a Factorial randomized Complete Block Design to test the interaction of three factors (variety of Bambara nut, P-level and intra-row spacing). The results of variety, intra-row spacing and p-level applications revealed a significantly (p< 0.05) higher pods/plant, pod weight and harvest index in Pategi Black in a spacing of 30 cm and 40 kg/ha was applied gave (618.7 and 631.5 kg/ha). While Ogoja White recorded a significantly (p<0.05) higher plant height, stover yield (606.0 and 615.2 kg/ha), days of 50% flowering, days of 50% maturity and shelling percentage at intra-row spacing 20 cm and 20 kg/ha across the two cropping seasons. Further growth and yield increment could be obtained by testing p-level above 40 kg /ha.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Age at Transplanting on the Growth and Yield Performance of Maize Transplants

O. S. Olabode, O. S. Oladapo, A. O. Sangodele

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/41797

Suboptimal plant population had been fingered as a major reason for low yield in maize production. This problem arises from poor germination due to poor seed viability caused by poor storage, unfavourable weather and field pests amongst other factors. Similarly, unstable weather had made it near impossible to predict the optimum planting date in the tropics. It has thus become very imperative to experiment with alternative methods of plant establishment for enhanced maize production in the tropics. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate transplanting as a method of field establishment for maize in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria. The treatments; transplanting at 1 week after planting (WAP), 2 WAP and 3 WAP were compared with the control, direct seeding, in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Management practices were carried out as prescribed for standard maize production.

Result showed that transplanted maize compared significantly (P=0.05) with the direct seeded control with respect to the growth parameters. The tallest plant (2.0 m) obtained from direct sowing was not superior to one-week transplant (1.8 m) and two-week transplant (1.7 m). The largest leaf area (1136 cm2) obtained from 2 WAP transplant was also not superior to 1134 cm2, 1117 cm2 and 1129 cm2 from 1 WAP, 3 WAP and direct sowing, respectively. Direct sowing produced plants with thickest stem (3.2 cm) which was however not significantly (P=0.5) different from those of other treatments.

Maize yield was also not significantly (P=0.05) influenced by transplanting and age at transplanting. The higher yield (4469 kg/ha) obtained from 1 WAP transplants was not superior to 3686 kg/ha, 3515 kg/ha and 3627 kg/ha from 2 and 3 WAP transplants and direct sowing respectively. The implications of this finding in disused, it could therefore be concluded that maize production will benefit immensely from transplanting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Quality Response of Chickpea to Different Sowing Dates

Md. Yeasin Ali, Parimal Kanti Biswas, Saleh Ahmed Shahriar, Saifullah Omar Nasif, Raziur Rahman Raihan

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/41731

A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from November 2015 to June 2016 to observe the effect of sowing dates on yield and quality of chickpea. The study aimed at finding out yield and quality response of two varieties of chickpea (BARI Chola-5 and BARI Chola-9), at five different sowing dates viz. November 05, November 20, December 05, December 20 and January 04. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The results of two varieties revealed significant variations in days to flowering, maturity, number of grains per plant, number of seeds per grain, the weight of 1000 seeds, grain yield, stover yield, biological yield and harvest index due to different sowing dates. Early and delayed sowings affected the chickpea yield and the quality of grain. Physiological responses of chickpea were also greatly influenced by different sowing dates that affect the proper growth and development of chickpea plants. In case of varieties, significant variation was observed in all parameters, here, BARI Chola-9 showed better performance than BARI Chola-5. BARI Chola-9 sown on November 20 produced maximum grain yield (2.40 t/ha) and the lowest grain yield (1.23 t/ha) was found in BARI Chola-5 sown on January 04. Irrespective of variety, early and delayed sowings showed lower performance on all parameters, significantly affected the yield and quality of chickpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determine the Relationship between the Performance of the Maize Varieties and Their Multi-Environment Status

Charles Afriyie-Debrah, Joseph Sarkodie Addo, Joseph Nketiah Berchie, Priscilla Francisco Ribeiro, Ebenezer Obeng Yeboah

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/42047

Maize (Zea mays L.) is among the main food security crops grown in a wide range of environments in Ghana. The crop grows in a wide range of environmental conditions. In the country, grain yields of maize are considerably affected by genotype x environment interaction (GXE) and other factors. The present study was performed to analyze the genotype by environment (GXE) interaction for grain yield of fourteen varieties (maize hybrids and OPVs) and three inbred lines in three environments located at different agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Grain yield data of the fourteen released varieties with three inbred lines was analyzed using GGE biplot methods were evaluated using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications across three environments (Fumesua, Ejura and Wenchi). The genotype and genotype by environment (GGE) biplot models were used to assess the magnitude of GXE interaction of grain yield among test materials. Results from genotypes and GXE contributed to PC1=79.3% and PC 2= 19% of the total variation of hybrids of this trait, respectively. The present study identified genotypes such as G11 (Abontem), G14 (Dorke SR) and G1 (Entry 5) showing respectively high grain yields of 6.69, 7.17 and 5.33 t/ha across environments showed minimal G X E interaction in that order across environments but with highly susceptible. Hybrids such as G2 (Entry 6) with low grain yields of 4.76 t/ha, G3 (Entry 70) (5.11 t/ha), and G13 (Akposoe) (5.22 t/ha) showed relatively low yields which are useful genetic resources for breeding because of other traits. Experimental hybrids with high grain yield in this study are good candidates for direct production or future hybrid development in Ghana.

Open Access Short communication

Growth, Carbohydrate Assimilation and Leaf Gas Exchange Characteristics of Elaeis guineensis Jacq Seedlings under Nitrogen Fertilization

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Rosimah Nulit, Puteri Edorayati Megat Wahab, Tuan Sharipah Najihah, Afifah Razak, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/42492

Aims: This study was conducted to characterise the growth, carbohydrate and leaf gas exchange patterns of oil palm seedlings performance (Deli Yangambi) under nitrogen fertilisation.

Study Design: The palms were fertilised with three nitrogen rates: (1) Control (90 g/palm); (2) twice the control (180 g/palm), and (3) thrice the control (270 g/palm). Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was used during the experiment using Deli Yangambi seedlings

Place and Duration of Study: Ladang 2, Universiti Putra Malaysia from March 2017 to June 2017.

Methodology: The nitrogen treatments started when the oil palm seedlings reached four months old using Urea (46% N) as a source of nitrogen. Growth, carbohydrate and leaf gas exchange properties were measured at the end of the treatment period of two months.

Results: As the level of nitrogen application increased, from 90 - 270 g/palm, the plant height, number of frond per plant, basal diameter, leaf area per seedling, root biomass, total dry matter, net assimilation rate (NAR) and relative growth rate (RGR) was statistically significantly increased between nitrogen treatments. The production of total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) was reduced under high rates of nitrogen. The reduced in TNC under high nitrogen rates was supported by a decrease in sucrose and starch content under low nitrogen fertilisation. The net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E) and Intercellular CO2 also was found to be increased under high nitrogen rates indicated that higher rates of nitrogen would enhance the leaf gas exchange characteristics of the palms.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the growth of oil palm seedlings growth was enhanced with high rates of nitrogen supplementation. As the nitrogen rates (90>270 g/palm), more production of TNC was produced and increased the sink strength of the palms. The enhanced growth and TNC accumulation also increased the leaf gas exchange properties that were showed by increased in A, gs, E, Ci and Water use efficiency in the oil palm seedlings.