Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Genotypes for Resistance to Web Blight Caused by Rhizoctonia solani

Frederick Kankam, Elias Nortaa Kunedeb Sowley, Abdulai Ibrahim

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/44182

Aims: Soil borne fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani are among the pathogens that infect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) causing web blight which results in yield loss of 30% worldwide. Disease infection is mostly controlled by the use of chemicals, which occasionally reaches the level of toxicity thereby polluting the environment as well as killing beneficial microorganisms in soil. The present study was conducted to evaluate seven cowpea genotypes for their resistance to Rhizoctonia solani.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out during the 2017 cropping season at the experimental fields of the University for Development Studies, Nyankpala, Northern Region of Ghana.

Methodology: The field was laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with seven treatments and each treatment replicated three times. Data was collected on disease incidence, severity and grain yield.

Results: The results showed that IT99K-1122 had the least incidence and severity whereas Sanzi recorded the highest disease incidence and severity. The results showed that IT99K-1122 was moderately resistant and also recorded the highest yield.

Conclusion: It was recommended that farmers cultivate IT99K-1122 as it was found to be the most suitable genotype offering resistance to R. solani. Thus, IT99K-1122 which was also moderately resistant was suggested to be used as a source of resistance to R. solani in future breeding works.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Composted and Powdered Bones Meal on the Growth and Yield of Amaranthus cruentus

Dilruba Yasmin, Md. Zulfikar Khan, Shaikh Motasim Billah

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/45241

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of composted and powdered bones meal on the growth and yield of Amaranthus cruentus on Pirojpur soil series during the period of 25th March to 15thMay, 2017. The experiment was laid to fit a completely randomized design (CRD) with seven treatments [control (T0), 2 g chicken bone powder/pot (T1), 2 g mutton bone powder/pot (T2), 2 g beef bone powder/pot (T3), 2 g chicken bone compost/pot (T4), 2 g mutton bone compost/pot (T5), and 2 g beef bone compost/pot (T6)] each having three replications for this experiment. After plants were harvested, the laboratory investigation was carried out. Yield contributing characters like number of leaves, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and moisture content were significantly (P <0.05) influenced by different treatments. Among the seven treatments applied, T6 treatment (2 g beef bone compost/pot) has shown the highest response to plant growth due to the nutrient availability of the soil. The sequence of response was in the order T6>T5>T4>T2>T3>T1 and significantly (P <0.05) difference in plant growth from the control (T0).

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving the Productivity of Some Varieties of Lentil Growing under Salt Stress

Khattab E. A., Elham A. Badr, M. H. Afifi

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/41726

Aims: The aim was to study the interaction and effect of gibberellic acid (200 ppm) between indole acetic acid (100 ppm) in order to follow their effect on the productivity of 5 lentil varieties (Sinai 1, Giza 9, Giza 370, Giza 4 and Giza51) known to be affected by salt stress in Sinai.           

Study Design:  The experiment was conducted as split plot design having varieties in main plot and IAA and GA3 in subplot.

Place and Duration of Study: The place of Research was "Production Station, Maghara at North of Sinai government, that follow Desert research center, of the ministry of agriculture, Egypt during the two successive seasons (2014/2015 and 2015 / 2016, respectively). The duration of the study was between June 2009 and July 2010 at Medicine (Medical Unit IV) and Department of Radiology. Services of Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS) and Hospital Lahore.

Methodology: The soil was prepared. The Seeds covered with a thin layer of soil, sown and watered. Three weeks later, the developed plants were thinned. Finally, the plants collected after 110 days of growth. Growth, yield and chemical contents determined.

Results: The results showed that application of IAA+GA3 substantially improved plant growth for all verities of lentil. Giza51 under treatment of IAA + GA3 give the highest value of plant height and dry weight of the plant. Giza4 variety with IAA+GA3 surpassed another verity of primary branches/plant. Whereas Sinai1variety with IAA+GA3 treatment surpassed in number of pods/plant, however, Giza370 surpassed in secondary branches/plant compared with other varieties and treatments. The hormones IAA and GA3 were applied individually as well as in combination (IAA+GA3) showed a significant increase in plant height, number of branches/plant of verity Sinai1, number of seeds/plant, number of pods/plant of verity Giza 370 and biological yield ton/ha of verity Giza 4.

Conclusion: The concentration of GA3 (200 ppm) is increase grain yield of variety Giza 4 and seed yield/plant of variety Giza 51. The combined dose of GA3+IAA showed a significant increase in all chemical and minerals contents in seed cultivar of Sinai 1 compared with other varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Approaching the Origins of Rice in China and Its Spread towards Indus Valley Civilization (Pakistan, India): An Archaeobotanical Perspective

Muhammad Azam Sameer, Zhang Juzhong, Yang Miao Miao

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/45749

The rice (Oryza sativa) was the central crop of the Ancient Civilizations. Most of the economy of ancient societies was based on rice. In the present Era, archaeobotany and ecology rebuild the ancient rice domestication in a systematic way. Historical and archaeobotanical records establish the fact that early rice farming was started at the Southern part of the China (Yangtze River basin), and later on rice was spread towards Indus Valley Civilization (Pakistan, India). It is also the fact that rice has been a crucial crop of both Ganges valley and China. The journey of earliest rice from China to Indus Valley Civilization (Pakistan, India) is the focusing of this manuscript. With this, the ancient rice agriculture of China, as well as Pakistan and India, is also the central part of the writing. Different phases of archaeobotany and its progress in Pakistan and India has also been presented in the writing. The origin of ancient rice and its dispersal is appealing debate which has been discussed in this paper hypothetically and systematically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical, Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of Nine Fenugreek Landraces

Sara E. I. Eldessouky, Rehab T. Behairy, A. A. M. Ashrie

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJRCS/2018/45693

Aim: Identification of plant genotypes is an important process to register the plant cultivars, protect breeder's right, maintain the genotype genetic purity, perform the field inspection as a supportive method to seed analysis and protect seed industry. So, the objective of this work was to distinguish among nine landraces of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) at the seedling, chemical, biochemical, and molecular levels.

Methodology: Germination percentage and seedling vigor characteristics were tested using ISTA rules. Seed chemical composition (Moisture, protein, oil, fibers, ash and carbohydrate) was measured. SDS-PAGE and RAPD-PCR methods were used for biochemical and molecular differentiation among the genotypes, respectively.

Results: The results of seedling characteristics revealed no significant difference among the genotypes in the germination percentage. Genotype-8 had the highest seedling vigour index, while genotype-10 had the lowest one. Chemical composition such as moisture content, crude protein content, oil content, ash content, crude fiber contents, and carbohydrates were analyzed. SDS-PAGE revealed a total of 21 bands with molecular weight (mw) ranging from 241.7 to 6.5 kDa. Eleven out of 21 was polymorphic bands and seven unique markers were found, four of them were positive and the others were negative. RAPD-PCR revealed a total of 103 DNA bands generated by 8 random primers, in which 64 were polymorphic bands. Twenty two unique RAPD markers were detected and all being positive.

Conclusion: Present investigation provided the information about seed germination, seed characters, biochemical and molecular differences of nine Egyptian fenugreek landraces. The results showed that L8 performed well with respect to seedling vigor index and fiber content, while L10 and L14 performed well with respect to protein and oil content, respectively. So, these landraces could be used in the breeding programs for developing the fenugreek.