Aims: This study was conducted to determine climatic effects to quality parameters of bread wheat genotypes grown in the semi-arid region.
Study Design: The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Thirty-three bread wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in a field trial and kernel samples analyzed for thousand kernel weight, test weight, protein content, wet gluten, dry gluten and SDS-sedimentation value.
Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons at Sanliurfa, Turkey.
Methodology: For analyses 20 main spikes that contained fully developed kernels were chosen randomly from each plot and taken to the laboratory for analyses. The nitrogen content of kernels was determined using the Kjeldahl method and the result was multiplied by the factor 5.7 to calculate the protein content of kernels. Test weight and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS)-sedimentation values were determined using standard procedures. Wet and dry gluten values were determined using a glutomatic system after separating gluten from the soluble starch and protein fractions.
Results: Genotypes were significant (P ≤ 0.01) for all tested characteristics. Thousand kernel weight ranged from 25.8 to 42.3 g, test weight from 73.7 to 81.7 kg hl-1, protein content from 9.7 to 14.8%, wet gluten from 28.5 to 42.2%, dry gluten from 9.4 to 14.1% and SDS-sedimentation value from 19 to 39 ml. Bezostaya-I, Kutluk-94, Altay-85, Harmankaya-99, Lirasa, Kirgiz-95 and Dagdas-94 genotypes had the best quality among tested genotypes in the semi-arid climatic conditions. Protein content was positively correlated with wet gluten, dry gluten and SDS-sedimentation value, respectively. Relationships were significant between wet gluten and both dry gluten and SDS-sedimentation value. A positive significant correlation was found between thousand kernel weight and SDS-sedimentation value and between dry gluten and SDS-sedimentation value.
Conclusion: Protein content, wet and dry gluten and SDS-sedimentation value were affected by climatic conditions of semi-arid region. Protein content, wet and dry gluten value were high but SDS-sedimentation value were low due to high temperature and low precipitation in semi-arid region.
Late leaf spot (LLS) Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. and Curtis) Deighton is one of the most important foliar diseases of groundnut worldwide including Nigeria. The genotypes were used to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for yield components and late leaf spot (LLS) resistance. Four susceptible genotypes (SAMNUT 23, SAMNUT 24, SAMNUT 25 and SAMNUT 26) were used as females and five resistant genotypes (ICGV 12991, ICGV 7878, FDR-F7 82, FDR-F7 67 and FDR-F7 61) were used as males using line x tester mating design with three replications. The parents and progenies were evaluated for late leaf spot resistance. Highly significant negative general combing ability (GCA) effects were recorded for disease incidence in SAMNUT 25 (-0.05), indicating the genotype is a good general combiner for late leaf spot (LLS) and SAMNUT 26 (-5.90) is a good general combiner for LLS disease severity. ICGV 12991 (-12.00), FDR-F7 67 (-.68) and FDR-F7 61 (-2.23) genotypes are good general combiner for late leaf spot (LLS) disease resistance (disease incidence and severity), among the crosses, significant and negative SCA effects were obtained for most of the crosses i.e SAMNUT 24 x FDR-F7 67 and SAMNUT 24 x FDR-F7 61 for late leaf spot (LLS) resistance indicating that they are good specific combiners for late leaf spot (LLS) resistance. The ratio of the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combing ability (SCA) variances indicated the preponderance of specific combining ability (SCA) variance over general combining ability (GCA) variance for disease incidence and severity, indicating the role of non-additive gene effect and it may be due to difference in genotypes used as parents.
Biotic and abiotic stress effects the crop yield badly every year. In the abiotic factors the drought, heat and salinity are the major stress for crops which are cultivated in Pakistan. Cultivated area are decreasing rapidly because the construction of new buildings, towns and population food demand increasing. There is only one way to fulfill the requirements of population by development stress tolerance genotypes. Two different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. with AABBDD genome and 6x= 42) i.e. Faisalabad 2008 and Galaxy 2013 were used to evaluate the effect of halopriming along with hydropriming to observe germination parameters and early growth stages. The experiment was conducted in factorial structured treatments design with three replications at Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. For halopriming seeds were soaked in 0.5% KCl, 1% KCl, 1.5% KCl and in distilled water for 6-8 hours. The results showed that final emergence percentage of priming seeds with 1% KCl of Faisalabad 2008 had higher percentage of germination than other treatments. However, for time to start germination there was no difference among KCl priming and hydropriming for both the varieties. For mean germination time, priming seeds with 1.5% KCl of Faisalabad 2008 showed maximum time. Seeds priming with 1% KCl of Galaxy 2013 took maximum time to complete 50% germination (T50). Overall, Faisalabad 2008 priming with KCl proved best in most of parameters.
Molecular characterization provides basic vital information on the degree of genetic diversity among genetic materials which guides development of breeding programme and inform strategies on genetic conservation of important accessions. A total of 21 SSR markers were used to characterize 25 rice genotypes. The 21 microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic and allele number per locus ranged from 3 alleles (RM 224, RM 229, RM 256, RM 413, RM 3, RM 276, RM 219, RM 88 and RM 349) to 5 alleles (RM 247 and RM 288), with a mean of 3.67 alleles through the 21 loci obtained in the study. The content value of the polymorphic information ranged from 0.372 in RM 88 to 0.503 in RM 256 with overall average of 0.422 in all the 21 loci. PIC values indicated that RM 256 was the best marker for the identification of the rice genotypes. The main allele frequency at each locus ranged from 54.5% (RM 219) to 69.3% (RM 229). The pairwise genetic dissimilarity co-efficient showed that the highest genetic distance was obtained between NERICA 2 and MR 220; NERICA 2 and MR 263; and finally between WITA 4 and NERICA 2 (76.0%). The lowest genetic dissimilarity was between NERICA 6 and NERICA 8 (19.0%) followed by WITA 4 and NERICA L 34; BW 348-1 and IWA 10 (24.0%). Intercrossing far related genotypes could yield hybrids of high heterosis using SSR marker. Cluster analysis revealed reasonable levels of locational groupings among the genotypes.
Abiotic stresses extremely affect crop productivity and agro-morphological and biochemical properties of all Brassica species. Due to these stresses, yield of many important Brassica species decreases by disturbing their normal growth rate. In this review, we have highlighted the latest reports about the impact of different abiotic stresses on different growth stages and other morpho-physiological processes of important Brassica species such as canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Many researchers reported that abiotic stresses influence the important morpho-biochemical characteristics such as root and shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight, proline and relative water contents, chlorophyll amount, antioxidant enzymes activity of important Brassica species. Cell injury also occurs by disturbance in normal oxidative processes due to these stresses. Against these stresses genetic modification have been described for the development of transgenic plant. The present study will be useful to identify the best abiotic stress tolerant Brassica genotypes for further genetic engineering program and crop improvement programs.