Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Some Rice Varieties under the System of Planting in Egypt

E. A. Khattab

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v3i230040

Rice is planting in different ways in Egypt; including direct seeding and transplanting seedling, so most of farmers facing problems in select any method and variety which may be led to highly income. Experiments ware conducted carried out during summer season at years 2016 and 2017, in privet Farm in east Delta Egypt, to investigate production of three varieties of Rice (Sakha 102, Giza 178 and Giza 182), affected by two sowing methods (direct seeding and seedling transplanting) under treatment of NPK concentration (0.0, 2% and 4%) as form 20:20:20 NPK, were arranged in split split-plot design with three replications. The results showed the superiority of the method of planting on the method of planting in both seasons. Increase in NPK concentration with Giza 178 under direct seeding recorded highly data for vegetative and physiology parameter; yield and yield component, and contents from some chemical contents in leaves and grains, while all parameter in this study recorded lowest data with Giza 182 under control NPK and transplanting.

Open Access Original Research Article

AMMI and GGE Analyses of Soyabean (Glycine max L. Merrill) Genotypes Infected and Uninfected with Cucumber mosaic virus

M. T. Salaudeen, A. A. Akinyemi, A. C. Wada, C. J. Adama, K. E. Ogunsola, A. N. Muhammad

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v3i230042

Soyabean is an important source of protein for millions of people in developing countries. However, infection by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes devastating losses. Cultivation of resistant varieties has been identified as the best management strategy in many crops. The present study was, therefore, conducted to identify soyabean genotypes with high stability for growth and seed weight under CMV and disease-free conditions. Thus, eight soyabean genotypes were evaluated as CMV-infected and uninfected, using completely randomised design replicated five times and set up in the screenhouse at the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Minna, (lat.9°40֬ N;long 6°30֬ E at an altitude of 220 m.a.s.l), Nigeria in 2018. Soyabean seedlings were infected with the virus by sap transmission at 10 days after sowing (DAS). Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative (AMMI) analyses of the evaluated parameters for growth and seed weight of the test genotypes showed that environments’ effects -infected and uninfected- were significant (p<0.05). They accounted for 100% Genotype × Environment (G×E) interaction. Disease-free soyabean plants enhanced significantly higher growth and seed weight than the CMV-infected plants. The AMMI and Genotype main effects (G) plus Genotype×Environment (GGE) analyses showed that TGX 1993-4FN was the genotype with the greatest stability for leaf diameter, leaf length, number of leaves per plant, number of days to flowering and seed weight. It is recommended that, the soyabean genotype TGX 1993-4FN, can be exploited for breeding purposes and strategies that will prevent CMV infection in soyabean fields should so be adopted by farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Agricultural Practices in Maize Crops (Zea mays) Based on Elemental Profile and Chemometrics Analysis

J. Zaldarriaga Heredia, C.A. Moldes, Marianela Savio, Silvana M. Azcarate, R. A. Gil, J. M. Camiña

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v3i230043

In this work the effects produced by two treatments on maize crop samples have been studied. Analysis of maize grain based on two types of agronomical conditions was performed on: (a) lots treated with different fertilizers and (b) lots with different crop density. Analysis was carried out by microwave induced plasma with optical emission spectrometry (MIP OES) and included the quantification of 11 elements: Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb and Zn. With the purpose of understand the effect of agricultural practices on elemental profile, principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used as chemometrics tools, finding a correct grouping of each crop based on the type of treatment. The obtained models can be useful to evaluate agricultural strategies, as well as for determining potential yields in maize crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Selected Potato Genotypes to Natural Virus Infection in the Field

Gidraf Onduru Okeyo, Rama Devi Narla, Hillary Moses Omondi Otieno, Elmar Schulte-Geldermann

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v3i230044

Potato viruses are one of the major biotic factors causing high yield losses in potato production fields. In contrast to other disease causing pathogens, potato viruses’ lack well documented chemical control strategy and hence difficult to control once established in the field. The aim of the study was to assess the reaction of different potato genotypes to natural virus infection in the field. The present study was carried out on 12 potato genotypes (7 CIP clones and 5 commercial varieties) at the Field Station of the University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete campus Kenya in two potato growth seasons. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) of 4 replications was adopted with 12 treatments. Data was collected on percent crop emergence, disease incidence, growth and yield performance. At the end of season 2, tubers were sampled randomly per genotype and tested for presence of viruses using CIP DAS-ELISA kit. Analysis of variance on different parameters revealed varied response of each genotype to virus infection in the field in both seasons. Four potato viruses: PVS (67%), PVY (20%), PLRV (12%) and PVM (7%), were detected infecting tested potato tubers either as single or as multiple infections. The results revealed that four clones: 392797.22, 393371.157, 398190.200 and 397073.7 had high levels of tolerance to virus infection. Therefore further studies should be done to understand whether they possess quantitative or qualitative resistant traits to specific potato viruses and other biotic factors.

Open Access Review Article

Pulses Diseases “Important limiting factor in yield’’ and their Managements

Junaid Iqbal, Usama Yousaf, Sana Zia, Aqsa Asgher, Rabail Afzal, Mujahid Ali, Anas Ur Rehman Sheikh, Aalam Sher

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2019/v3i230045

Legume crops are very important group of plants that belong to Fabaceae or leguminaceae family and are rich in different essential amino acids. These legumes prove to be the cheapest and most easily accessible source of required proteins. Humans need proper amount of proteins and essential amino acids that are crucial for the proper functioning of the body. In developed countries a large number of diverse diets including meat, fish, protein, drinks and food supplements are readily available but the developing countries having very small income per capita cannot afford all of these commodities. They fulfill their nutritional value by using legume crops. But in developing countries pulses face a number of biotic challenges. They have low production due to less improved varieties. Major damage to the pulse crops is due to the range of bacterial, fungal and viral diseases that drastically reduce the crop production per unit area. Major diseases of pulse crops include chickpea (Blight, Fusarium wilt, root rot), Green and Black gram (Leaf crinckle virus, Mung bean yellow mosaic virus, Mungbean phyllody disease, Cercospora leaf spot, Powdery Mildew), lentil (Ascochyta Blight, Stemphylium Blight, Anthracnose, Botrytis grey mold, Lentil Rust) and soya bean (Charcoal rot, White mold, Louisiana, Root rot, Septoria glycines, Sclerotium rolfsii, Black root rot). These diseases can be controlled by many physical as well as biological methods that have low cost of production and safe to environment. The detailed elaboration of major pulse diseases and their effective control methods have been summarized in this review paper.