Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Behavior of Cashew Genotypes against Anthracnose Disease Aggression in Agroforestry Farms in Northern Côte d'Ivoire

Brou Kouassi Guy, Doga Dabé, Diarrassouba Nafan, Oro Zokou Franck, N’goran Yao Claude François, Kouassi Koffi II Nazaire, Dogbo Denezon Odette

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330116

As in all cashew producing areas, anthracnose causes enormous production losses in cashew agroforestry farms in Côte d'Ivoire. To overcome this problem, the use of anthracnose-resilient production plant material in cashew forest agrosystems is becoming a necessity for sustainable development. Thus, this study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the behavior of genotypes of cashew trees cultivated in peasant agroforestry systems in the north of Côte d'Ivoire. To do this, peasant agroforestry cashew orchards were prospected, cashew trees were marked, codified and geolocated. The incidence and severity of anthracnose were then assessed on the marked and geotagged cashew leaves, twigs, inflorescences and fruits. Descriptive analysis of the incidence and severity data revealed that more than 50% of the genotypes studied are resilient to anthracnose with an incidence on nuts in the order of 0.00 ± 5.75%. The ACP explained 52.96% of the total variability observed with the first two axes. The CAH made it possible to structure these genotypes into four groups. MANOVA showed that genotypes in groups 2 and 4 exhibited traits of resilience against anthracnose disease. Group 2 was characterized by a relative absence of disease in the fruits (0.00 ±0.00) and by very severe infections in the twigs (88.19 ± 2.98). Groups 4 were differentiated by low fruit infections (1.32±0.32) and low incidence on fruits (2.17±1.09). These results should help promote the agroecological management of anthracnose disease, enhance and intensify agroforestry practices in Côte d'Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Chickpea Varieties Based on Growth and Yield Parameters Influenced by Different Sowing Dates at Toke Kutaye District, Ethiopia

Adinew Getachew, Thomas Abraham

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330117

One of the basic agronomic practices to improve the yield of chickpea are ideal sowing date and high yielding varieties. Thus, a field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different sowing dates on yield and yield components of chickpea varieties in the main cropping season of 2019 at Toke Kutaye District. Four sowing dates (September 4th, September 14th, September 24th, and October 5th) and four kabuli varieties. Four Kabuli types of chickpea varieties were Dalota, Ejere, Teji and Dube (local check). Experiment was laid out in split plot design using factorial arrangement with three replications and sowing date treatments were assigned to the main plots and varieties to sub plots. The main effect of sowing date showed highly significant effect on days to emergence, days to 50% flowering and physiological maturity. Highest days to emergence                (12.4 days) were recorded from a plot sown on October 5th, while longest days to 50% flowering (54.92 days) and physiological maturity (122.5 days) were recorded from a plot sown on September 14th. Moreover, varieties had significant effect on days to physiological maturity of chickpea. Longest days to physiological maturity (133 days) were recorded from local variety and early days to physiological maturity (113.3 days) was recorded from Dalota variety. The main effects of sowing date and variety were significant on plant height, as the tallest plant height (42.75 cm) was recorded from September 24th sown plants. Similarly, the tallest (41.42 cm) plant was recorded from Dalota variety. In addition, the highest number of primary branches (6.83) and secondary branches (16.42) per plant were recorded from Dalota variety, while the lowest number of primary branch (5.5) and secondary branches (8) were scored from Ejere and Teji varieties, respectively. Highest grain yield (2415.4 kg ha-1) was obtained from plots sown on September 14th whereas Dalota variety produced highest grain yield (2051.25 kg ha-1). Hence, Dalota variety and September 14th sowing date emerged as best among all tested treatments and can be recommended for chickpea production in the study area and similar agro-ecologies. Conclusive recommendation could be obtained if the study is repeated at more locations and seasons in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Nutritive Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) Produced and Stocked from Rural Conditions in Côte d’Ivoire

Kouamé Désiré, Biego Henri Marius, Niamketchi Gilles Léonce, Konan Ysidor, Sidibé Daouda

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330118

Aims: Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food for millions of people in Côte d’Ivoire. Due                         to its high productivity and low cost of calorie it is preferred crop for food security of the                      country. Thus, this study was conducted to assess nutritive quality of maize produced and               stocked in five purposively selected regions of Côte d’Ivoire which represents five agroecological settings.

Study Design: A total of 1500 samples of maize as grains, epis and spathes were collected at rate of 500 samples by region (Gbêkê, Poro, Hambol, Indénié-Djuablin and Gontougo) and sent to the laboratory in order to analyse their nutritional quality.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out during March 2016 to January 2017. The collected sample were carried out at the laboratory unit of Food Sciences and Biochemistry of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan.

Methodology: Proximate analyses were carried out using standard methods AOAC (2000).

Results: The results show significant difference from the biochemical compositions of maize type and region. Mean value intervals were as follow: dry matter (85.83 – 91.42%), ash (1.19 - 2%), proteins (7.99 - 9.32), lipids (3.21 - 4.47), carbohydrates (71.80 - 77.94), starches (62.30 - 68.44%), fibers (5.03 - 5.83%), total sugars (2,13 - 2.99%), reducing sugars (0.33 - 0.66%), free fat acidity (1.86- 4.50%), peroxide value (1.34 - 3.07 meq O2/kg), iodine value (100.93 - 130.56 g I2/100 g), unsaponifiable (0.89 - 1.54%) and energy values (357.88 - 374.39 kcal).

Conclusion: A significant variability from one region to another can be noticed at level of maize quality regardless the type of maize. The nutritive quality of maize seems to be tied to postharvest treatments (drying), type of storage (epis, grains and spathes) and structure of storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Gas Exchange Responses of Maize and Banana Plants in an Intercrop with Agroforestry Tree Species in Vihiga County, Kenya

Wamalwa Dennis Simiyu, David Mutisya Musyimi, Phoebe Anyango Sikuku, Duncan George Odhiambo

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 33-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330119

Agroforestry trees have been reported to improve soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, coupled with leaves and twig decomposition. High human population pressure in Vihiga County has led to reduced land area under farming. This has resulted into increased demand for food and consequently forced smallholder farmers in the region to carry out poor farming practices such as continuous cultivation and clearing of trees to avail more land for crop production. The poor farming practices have occasioned severe land degradation, climate change and reduced farm productivity. However, it is not known how intercropping maize and banana with Sesbania sesban, Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena diversifolia impacts on the growth and gas exchange parameters of maize and banana. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of intercropping agroforestry tree species with maize and banana on maize and banana height, leaf area, number of leaves, stem diameter, intercellular Carbon (IV) oxide concentration, transpiration rate and net photosynthesis in Vihiga County. The study was conducted at Maseno university farm located in Vihiga County in Kenya. The Williams varieties of banana of the same age were obtained from KALRO-Thika. Seeds of selected agroforestry trees were obtained from KEFRI – Muguga, planted in a seedbed and the seedlings raised in nurseries before being transplanted in the study plots. Hybrid maize seed (H513) was purchased from an agrovet. Banana holes were dug 2x2 feet, 20 Kg of decomposed cow dung manure + 20 Kg of top soil + 200g of NPK fertilizer added in each banana hole before planting. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications was used with seven treatment levels of unfertilized Maize (M), Banana (B), Maize + Banana + Calliandra (MBC), Maize+ Banana+ Leucaena (MBL), Maize+ Banana+ Sesbania (MBS), Maize + Banana (MB) and Fertilized Maize (MF). Maize was planted at 0.75 m inter row by 0.3 m spacing. Fifteen (15) tagged maize and four (4) banana plants in each plot were sampled for measurement of height, number of green leaves, leaf area, stem diameter, intercellular Carbon (IV) oxide concentration, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate. The data was subjected to Analysis of Variance using Genstat statistical package version 15.2. Means were separated using Fischers’ protected LSD test at 95% confidence level. The MBS treatment showed higher growth in terms of height, leaf area, number of leaves and stem diameter throughout the study period. Increased growth seen under fertilized maize was not significantly different from those under MBS. Gas exchange responses had no significant differences (p≤0.05) among most treatments. However, agroforestry tree species had shown higher intercellular Carbon (IV) oxide concentration, transpiration rates and net photosynthesis of maize and banana plants. Sesbania sesban reported maximum intercellular Carbon (IV) oxide concentration, transpiration rates and net photosynthesis as compared to those treatments without agroforestry trees. Therefore, incorporating nitrogen-fixing trees in farming could have a positive impact on growth, increased carbon (IV) oxide intake, transpiration rates and net photosynthetic rate. Sesbania sesban promoted growth and recorded higher gas exchange parameters of maize and banana. These findings may be used to advice smallholder farmers of Vihiga County on the best intercropping system and agroforestry tree species to adopt for maximum maize and banana yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agromorphological Diversity among Popcorn (Zea mays. everta) Landraces Grown in Zambia

N. Bbebe, L. Tembo, K. Kamfwa

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i330120

Thirty nine (39) popcorn landraces alongside three (3) check varieties were evaluated for variability and relationships based on 15 agromorphological traits in Kabwe, Zambia during 2019/20 and 2020/21 seasons. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications in both instances. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p<0.001) differences among the popcorn landrace populations in some traits such as days to anthesis, days to silking, anthesis-silking interval, 100 seed weight, ear and plant heights.Principal component analysis also delineated these traits as the most important in contributing to the variability among the landraces alongside tassel length. The first two principal components accounted for 71.1% of total variability with PC-1 accounting for 41.7 and PC-2 with 28.4%. Genetic diversity based on discriminant analysis revealed low mean differentiation (D2=0.12) among the landrace populations. The check population ‘Lion popcorn’ had the largest mean genetic distance among the studied populations (D2=0.42) while ZMP 1932 was the most differentiated among the landraces (D2=0.38). Cluster analysis resulted in seven clusters with the clustering mostly based on the relative strength of the popcorn landraces in particular traits such as long A-S interval (cluster I) and high seed weight (cluster VII). Overall, two popcorn landraces were identified for their relatively high genetic diversity index (ZMP 1932 and ZMP 1902). These alongside the check variety ‘Lion popcorn’ can be used to cross with the local landraces as a way of increasing genetic diversity.