Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Factors and Cocoa Rehabilitation Techniques among Farmers in Boki, Cross River State, Nigeria

A. O. Akinpelu, J. O. Lawal, O. S. Ibiremo, Q. A. Ogunwolu

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430121

Aims: The study was aimed at; profile the socio economic characteristics of the farmers in the study area, ascertaining types of cocoa rehabilitation techniques prevalent in the study area and ascertaining farmers’ knowledge of cocoa rehabilitation.

Place and Duration of the Study: Boki local government area of cross river state, Nigeria.

Methodology: Data obtained was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation. The study employed a multistage random sampling technique to select cocoa farmers. The first stage was a purposive selection of the local government area. A total of eighty seven (87) cocoa farmers were randomly selected in the local government area. Well-structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the farmers.

Results: About 77.0% and 96.6% of the farmers were male and married. Mean age, household size, farming experience, age of cocoa farms were 46years±10, 12±7, 24 years ±9 and 18 years±10, respectively. Cocoa rehabilitation techniques considered in the study were coppicing, complete replanting, side grafting, top grafting, phased farm replanting, fertilizer application and planting under cocoa trees.

Conclusion: It was recommended that cocoa farmers in the study area should be encouraged to stay on the farms through provision of infrastructure to reduce rural-urban migration. Cocoa research institute of Nigeria and other stakeholders in cocoa production should ensure that farmers are encouraged to adopt and practice other cocoa rehabilitation techniques.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Varying NPK 15-15-15 Fertilizer Application Rates on Growth and Yield of Cucumis melo L. (Muskmelon)

Matthew Aluko

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430123

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) is cultivated for the nutritional and medicinal values. Information on nutrient requirements which is important components of improved cultural practices for production. A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria in the rainy seasons of 2017 and 2018. This study aims to evaluate the growth and yield responses of muskmelon to varying rates of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer rates (0, 167, 333 and 500 kg ha-1) in a randomized complete block design. Data were collected on growth parameters, number and weight of fruits. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and treatment means separated with Duncan's multiple range test. NPK fertilizer rates increased vegetative growth and fruit yield linearly. Muskmelon's response to varying rates of NPK 15-15-15 followed the same trend in the two seasons, and fertilizer application reduced day to flowering significantly. The 500 kg ha-1 NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer produced a significantly higher number of fruits ha-1, but 333 kg ha-1 NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer produced higher quality fruits culminating in higher fruit yield (17.3 t ha-1) and therefore recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plant Population and NPS Fertilizer Rates on Yield and Yield Components of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) in Bako, Western Ethiopia

Gezahegn Biru Sefera, Habtamu Ashagre, Thomas Abraham

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 28-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430124

Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is a pulse crop with multiple uses and it was introduced recently in the study area. However, its productivity is limited by inadequate plant population and NPS fertilizer rate in the study area. Hence, this study was carried out to determine optimum plant population and NPS fertilizer rates for mung bean borda varaity in Bako, Western Ethiopia. The experiment comprised of factorial combinations of four different plant populations (500000, 571429, 666667, and 800000 plants ha-1) and five NPS fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and it was laid out using Randomised Complete Block Design with three replications. The results indicated that main effect of plant population and NPS fertilizer rates had significant effect on phenology, growth, yield, and yield components of mung bean, except stand count, above-ground biomass, straw and seed yield, which were affected by the main factors and their interactions. Highest nodule dry weight per plant (0.14g), number of pods per plant (4.74g), seeds per pod (10.26g), 100-seed weight (3.61g), and harvest index (31.16%) were observed under minimum plant population (500,000 plants ha-1). Moreover, the highest days for 50% flowering (49.08 days), 90% physiological maturity (64.5 days), effective nodules per plant (2.28),nodule fresh weight (0.33gm), nodule dry weight (0.141g plant-1),plant height (11.10cm), number of leaves per plant (8.80), number of branches per plant (3.11), tap root length (8.99cm), number of pods per plant (4.79), seeds per pod (10.78g), 100-seed weight (3.73) and harvest index (32.98%) were observed under 200 kg ha-1 NPS fertilizer. The highest stand count per hectare (780,667 plants ha−1), above-ground biomass (4,947kg ha-1), seed yield ha-1 (1,371kg ha-1) and straw yield (3,575 kg ha-1) were recorded at higher plant population (800,000 plants ha-1) with 200kg NPS ha-1 fertilizer rate (kg ha-1). However, higher plant population (800,000 plants ha-1) at the rate of 100 kg NPS ha-1fertilizer produced 1,325 kg ha-1seed yield which was the highest net benefit (50,080 ETB) and marginal rate of returns (5,610.8%). Therefore, application of 100 kg NPS ha-1 fertilizer rate with plant population of 800,000 plants ha-1 can be recommended for mung bean production in the study area and similar agro-ecologes. However, the current study was carried out only in one location for one cropping season, hence further studies over many seasons and across several locations are needed to have a conclusive recommendation for wide range of agro ecologies for mung bean production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Uptake of Striga Weed Control Technologies in Kenya

Godfrey Nakitare Nambafu, Richard Ndemo Onwonga

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 51-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430126

Over the years, new technologies have been tested and introduced to control Striga in maize producing areas but adoption has remained low. The study done in 2013, determined the demographic and socioeconomic factors that influenced the adoption of Striga control technologies in Kisumu West, Bumula and Teso South sub counties of Western Kenya. Through Multi stage sampling technique, 40 households were selected per sub county for questionnaire administration; to gather information on demographic profiles of the sample population, type of fertilizer and seed variety used, income of the household, source of credit facilities and challenges faced in weed control. Chi square test at P<0.05 and logistic regression analysis, using R software was used to determine the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and uptake of Striga control technologies. Farmers cited high cost, poor availability of improved varieties and lack of adequate knowledge as reasons for non-adoption of the Striga control strategies. Farmer’s age, education, land size and hiring of labour were found to significantly influence the adoption of the Striga control technologies. The low levels of adoption of modern technology indicate that they were not meeting farmers’ expectations, thus, researchers should put into consideration farmers’ education, age, land size and ability to high labour in their planning for an informed technology adoption. In addition, alternative options should be extended to farmers who are not able to use expensive technologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed priming with Salicylic Acid (SA) and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Improve Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) under Salt Stress

Shaila Shermin Tania, Md. Moklasur Rahaman, Farjana Rauf, Mehera Afroj Suborna, Muhammad Humayun Kabir, Md. Anamul Hoque, Mohammad Saidur Rhaman

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 60-69
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430127

Aim: Salinity is a major barrier to successful crop production. Seed priming and exogenous application of different signaling molecules can efficiently confer salinity tolerance. Wheat is a major cereal crop in the world and salinity drastically reduces the wheat seedling growth and yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the potentiality of different signaling molecules such as salicylic acid (SA) and H2O2 to alleviate the salinity-induced growth inhibition of wheat.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, from September-October, 2021.

Methodology: The wheat (cv. BARI-Gom 24) seeds were soaked in normal tap water (hydro-priming), 1 mM SA, 2 mM SA, 0.1 mM H2O2, and 0.15 mM H2O2 solutions for 30 minutes. The untreated seeds were used as control. Eventually, primed seeds were exposed to 150 mM NaCl in Petri dishes during germination. Primed and non-primed seedlings were grown for 15 days under 150 mM NaCl stress condition.

Results: The result revealed that salt stress significantly reduced germination percentage (GP), germination index (GI), seed vigor index (SVI), shoot and root length. The results also exhibited that photosynthetic pigments, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, lycopene, and beta-carotene contents were significantly reduced by salt stress. Seed priming with SA and H2O2 and hydro-priming promoted the germination percentage, seedling growth (including shoot and root length), SVI, and photosynthetic pigments.

Conclusion: Pretreatment with 1 mM SA and 0.1 mM H2O2 was observed to be relatively more efficient in conferring salinity tolerance of wheat compared with other treating conditions. Overall, this study suggests that wheat seed priming with SA and H2O2 and hydro-priming can improve salinity tolerance.

Aim: Salinity is a major barrier to successful crop production. Seed priming and exogenous application of different signaling molecules can efficiently confer salinity tolerance. Wheat is a major cereal crop in the world and salinity drastically reduces the wheat seedling growth and yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the potentiality of different signaling molecules such as salicylic acid (SA) and H2O2 to alleviate the salinity-induced growth inhibition of wheat.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, from September-October, 2021.

Methodology: The wheat (cv. BARI-Gom 24) seeds were soaked in normal tap water (hydro-priming), 1 mM SA, 2 mM SA, 0.1 mM H2O2, and 0.15 mM H2O2 solutions for 30 minutes. The untreated seeds were used as control. Eventually, primed seeds were exposed to 150 mM NaCl in Petri dishes during germination. Primed and non-primed seedlings were grown for 15 days under 150 mM NaCl stress condition.

Results: The result revealed that salt stress significantly reduced germination percentage (GP), germination index (GI), seed vigor index (SVI), shoot and root length. The results also exhibited that photosynthetic pigments, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, lycopene, and beta-carotene contents were significantly reduced by salt stress. Seed priming with SA and H2O2 and hydro-priming promoted the germination percentage, seedling growth (including shoot and root length), SVI, and photosynthetic pigments.

Conclusion: Pretreatment with 1 mM SA and 0.1 mM H2O2 was observed to be relatively more efficient in conferring salinity tolerance of wheat compared with other treating conditions. Overall, this study suggests that wheat seed priming with SA and H2O2 and hydro-priming can improve salinity tolerance.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål), a Major Pest of Rice in Asia and Pacific

Kari Iamba, Danar Dono

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 7-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430122

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important staple food in the world including Asia and Pacific. Millions of people around the world depend on rice due to the high calories and economic returns it provides. More than 100 species of insects including 20 economic pests are capable of causing notable damage to rice plants. Insect pests continue to pose threat to rice farming since rice plants serve as their host plants. Pests are major constraints to rice production and coexist with rice growth. Information on pest economic importance, description, biology, distribution, economic threshold level, population dynamics, monitoring and forecasting is a prerequisite. This review is focused on brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) which is an important economic rice pest that are prevalent in tropical rice growing regions. Brown planthopper (BPH) is a serious pest of rice and has tremendous impact especially in Asia-Pacific region. Understanding the biology and ecology of this pest will enhance the designing, formulation and utilization of effective control measures. The control strategies as stipulated by integrated pest management (IPM) should be eco-friendly with minimum use of synthetic pesticides while boosting the activities of natural enemies and other biological control agents. The control measures discussed in this paper are oriented towards the cultural and biological aspects of managing the pest.

Open Access Review Article

Environmental Control of Plant Primary Metabolism: Exploitation of Plant Plasticity in Perennial and Tree Crops

Sumanta Bhattacharya, Swrupananda Mukherjee, Rituparna Mazumder, Sparsha Moni Chatterjee

Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, Page 40-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajrcs/2021/v6i430125

Perennial and tree crops are interwoven with environmental challenges in multiple ways, as anthropogenic global changes are a fundamental component in a variety of pressures that have negative consequences for farming. Climate controls have a wide range of detrimental effects on the land and crops. Rainfall, temperature, heat waves, pests or bacteria, CO2 or ozone levels, and marine flows are a few examples of environmental controls life. These alterations have a negative influence on the metabolisms of primary and secondary in plants, but they make use of the adaptability of plants also, which is referred to as plasticity.

Biological and metabolic characteristics, as well as plant genome mutations for greater adaptability, play an important impact on growth patterns. Pathogens and herbivores, for example, are important climatic regulators that induce unique plasticity within the plant system. The incredible adaptability is that the plants thrive under extreme conditions. Furthermore, more research and investigations are needed to determine how and to what extent plasticity can aid endurance. Because of the influence of various other factors, the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. They sense the stressor in the environment, become engaged, and then trigger the appropriate physiological responses. According to the GDB theory, the metabolic exchange is responsible for plant elasticity including the processes of growth and differentiation.

The genetic trade-off in plant life development is caused by the biological impact on growth and genetic alterations, as well as herbivory and plant-plant competition. In a traditional growth rate model, researchers separate the biological and evolutionary components to characterize the impact of competition in the development of this flexibility. Plant breeding is unquestionably important in the application of plasticity to stressful controls. In the current circumstances, larger yields under harsh environmental conditions are required to meet food demand.